skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Chemical-free n-type and p-type multilayer-graphene transistors

Abstract

Here, a single-step doping method to fabricate n- and p-type multilayer graphene (MG) top-gate field effect transistors (GFETs) is demonstrated. The transistors are fabricated on soda-lime glass substrates, with the n-type doping of MG caused by the sodium in the substrate without the addition of external chemicals. Placing a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) barrier layer between the MG and the substrate blocks the n-doping, resulting in p-type doping of the MG above regions patterned with HSQ. The HSQ is deposited in a single fabrication step using electron beam lithography, allowing the patterning of arbitrary sub-micron spatial patterns of n- and p-type doping. When a MG channel is deposited partially on the barrier and partially on the glass substrate, a p-type and n-type doping profile is created, which is used for fabricating complementary transistors pairs. Unlike chemically doped GFETs in which the external dopants are typically introduced from the top, these substrate doped GFETs allow for a top gate which gives a stronger electrostatic coupling to the channel, reducing the operating gate bias. Overall, this method enables scalable fabrication of n- and p-type complementary top-gated GFETs with high spatial resolution for graphene microelectronic applications.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Voxtel Inc. and Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Lokey Lab.
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Sustainable Energy Technologies Dept.; Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy and Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1459168
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1283420
Report Number(s):
BNL-206802-2018-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951; APPLAB
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-6951
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; doping; multilayers; amorphous metals; electron beam deposition; field effect transistors; graphene; sodium; electron doped superconductors; Dirac equation

Citation Formats

Dissanayake, D. M. N. M., and Eisaman, Matthew D. Chemical-free n-type and p-type multilayer-graphene transistors. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4960530.
Dissanayake, D. M. N. M., & Eisaman, Matthew D. Chemical-free n-type and p-type multilayer-graphene transistors. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960530.
Dissanayake, D. M. N. M., and Eisaman, Matthew D. Fri . "Chemical-free n-type and p-type multilayer-graphene transistors". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960530. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1459168.
@article{osti_1459168,
title = {Chemical-free n-type and p-type multilayer-graphene transistors},
author = {Dissanayake, D. M. N. M. and Eisaman, Matthew D.},
abstractNote = {Here, a single-step doping method to fabricate n- and p-type multilayer graphene (MG) top-gate field effect transistors (GFETs) is demonstrated. The transistors are fabricated on soda-lime glass substrates, with the n-type doping of MG caused by the sodium in the substrate without the addition of external chemicals. Placing a hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) barrier layer between the MG and the substrate blocks the n-doping, resulting in p-type doping of the MG above regions patterned with HSQ. The HSQ is deposited in a single fabrication step using electron beam lithography, allowing the patterning of arbitrary sub-micron spatial patterns of n- and p-type doping. When a MG channel is deposited partially on the barrier and partially on the glass substrate, a p-type and n-type doping profile is created, which is used for fabricating complementary transistors pairs. Unlike chemically doped GFETs in which the external dopants are typically introduced from the top, these substrate doped GFETs allow for a top gate which gives a stronger electrostatic coupling to the channel, reducing the operating gate bias. Overall, this method enables scalable fabrication of n- and p-type complementary top-gated GFETs with high spatial resolution for graphene microelectronic applications.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4960530},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 5,
volume = 109,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

A Graphene Field-Effect Device
journal, April 2007

  • Lemme, Max C.; Echtermeyer, Tim J.; Baus, Matthias
  • IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. 28, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/LED.2007.891668

Device scaling limits of Si MOSFETs and their application dependencies
journal, March 2001

  • Frank, D. J.; Dennard, R. H.; Nowak, E.
  • Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 89, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/5.915374

Graphene: Its Fundamentals to Future Applications
journal, October 2011

  • Moon, Jeong-Sun; Gaskill, D. Kurt
  • IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 59, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2011.2164617

The Focusing of Electron Flow and a Veselago Lens in Graphene p-n Junctions
journal, March 2007


A roadmap for graphene
journal, October 2012

  • Novoselov, K. S.; Fal′ko, V. I.; Colombo, L.
  • Nature, Vol. 490, Issue 7419
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature11458

Graphene Barristor, a Triode Device with a Gate-Controlled Schottky Barrier
journal, May 2012


Photocurrent generation in lateral graphene p-n junction created by electron-beam irradiation
journal, July 2015

  • Yu, Xuechao; Shen, Youde; Liu, Tao
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep12014

Microelectronics packaging: present and future
journal, April 1995


Photocurrent generation of a single-gate graphene p–n junction fabricated by interfacial modification
journal, September 2015


Phase-Coherent Transport in Graphene Quantum Billiards
journal, September 2007


The electronic properties of graphene
journal, January 2009

  • Castro Neto, A. H.; Guinea, F.; Peres, N. M. R.
  • Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 81, Issue 1, p. 109-162
  • DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.81.109

Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films
journal, October 2004


Chiral tunnelling and the Klein paradox in graphene
journal, August 2006

  • Katsnelson, M. I.; Novoselov, K. S.; Geim, A. K.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 2, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys384

Spontaneous and strong multi-layer graphene n-doping on soda-lime glass and its application in graphene-semiconductor junctions
journal, February 2016

  • Dissanayake, D. M. N. M.; Ashraf, A.; Dwyer, D.
  • Scientific Reports, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/srep21070

Graphene transistors
journal, May 2010


Single step, complementary doping of graphene
journal, February 2010

  • Brenner, Kevin; Murali, Raghunath
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 96, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3308482

Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene
journal, May 2011

  • Das Sarma, S.; Adam, Shaffique; Hwang, E. H.
  • Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 83, Issue 2, p. 407-470
  • DOI: 10.1103/RevModPhys.83.407

Graphene for CMOS and Beyond CMOS Applications
journal, December 2010

  • Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Register, Leonard Franklin; Tutuc, Emanuel
  • Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 98, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2010.2064151