skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Impact of Defects in Powder Feedstock Materials on Microstructure of 304L and 316L Stainless Steel Produced by Additive Manufacturing

Abstract

Recent work in both 304L and 316L stainless steel produced by additive manufacturing (AM) has shown that in addition to the unique, characteristic microstructures formed during the process, a fine dispersion of sub-micron particles, with a chemistry different from either the powder feedstock or the expected final material, are evident in the final microstructure. Such fine-scale features can only be resolved using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or similar techniques. The present paper uses electron microscopy to study both the initial powder feedstock and microstructures in final AM parts. Special attention is paid to the chemistry and origin of these nanoscale particles in several different metal alloys, and their impact on the final build. Finally, comparisons to traditional, wrought material will be made.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1458957
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-27531
Journal ID: ISSN 1073-5623
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 49; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 1073-5623
Publisher:
ASM International
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; transmission electron microscopy (TEM), additive manufacturing (AM), microstructure

Citation Formats

Morrow, Benjamin M., Lienert, Thomas J., Knapp, Cameron M., Sutton, Jacob O., Brand, Michael J., Pacheco, Robin M., Livescu, Veronica, Carpenter, John S., and Gray, George T. Impact of Defects in Powder Feedstock Materials on Microstructure of 304L and 316L Stainless Steel Produced by Additive Manufacturing. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s11661-018-4661-9.
Morrow, Benjamin M., Lienert, Thomas J., Knapp, Cameron M., Sutton, Jacob O., Brand, Michael J., Pacheco, Robin M., Livescu, Veronica, Carpenter, John S., & Gray, George T. Impact of Defects in Powder Feedstock Materials on Microstructure of 304L and 316L Stainless Steel Produced by Additive Manufacturing. United States. doi:10.1007/s11661-018-4661-9.
Morrow, Benjamin M., Lienert, Thomas J., Knapp, Cameron M., Sutton, Jacob O., Brand, Michael J., Pacheco, Robin M., Livescu, Veronica, Carpenter, John S., and Gray, George T. Mon . "Impact of Defects in Powder Feedstock Materials on Microstructure of 304L and 316L Stainless Steel Produced by Additive Manufacturing". United States. doi:10.1007/s11661-018-4661-9. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1458957.
@article{osti_1458957,
title = {Impact of Defects in Powder Feedstock Materials on Microstructure of 304L and 316L Stainless Steel Produced by Additive Manufacturing},
author = {Morrow, Benjamin M. and Lienert, Thomas J. and Knapp, Cameron M. and Sutton, Jacob O. and Brand, Michael J. and Pacheco, Robin M. and Livescu, Veronica and Carpenter, John S. and Gray, George T.},
abstractNote = {Recent work in both 304L and 316L stainless steel produced by additive manufacturing (AM) has shown that in addition to the unique, characteristic microstructures formed during the process, a fine dispersion of sub-micron particles, with a chemistry different from either the powder feedstock or the expected final material, are evident in the final microstructure. Such fine-scale features can only be resolved using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or similar techniques. The present paper uses electron microscopy to study both the initial powder feedstock and microstructures in final AM parts. Special attention is paid to the chemistry and origin of these nanoscale particles in several different metal alloys, and their impact on the final build. Finally, comparisons to traditional, wrought material will be made.},
doi = {10.1007/s11661-018-4661-9},
journal = {Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science},
number = 8,
volume = 49,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 6 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Analyzing the effects of powder and post-processing on porosity and properties of electron beam melted Ti-6Al-4V
journal, June 2017


Effect of repeated weld-repairs on microstructure, texture, impact properties and corrosion properties of AISI 304L stainless steel
journal, April 2012


Thermal Behavior and Microstructure Evolution during Laser Deposition with Laser-Engineered Net Shaping: Part II. Experimental Investigation and Discussion
journal, June 2008

  • Zheng, B.; Zhou, Y.; Smugeresky, J. E.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 39, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-008-9566-6

Metrology Needs for Metal Additive Manufacturing Powders
journal, January 2015


An examination of the use of the Modified Jogged-Screw model for predicting creep behavior in Zircaloy-4
journal, July 2013


As-Fabricated and Heat-Treated Microstructures of the Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Processed by Selective Laser Melting
journal, May 2011

  • Vilaro, T.; Colin, C.; Bartout, J. D.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 42, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-011-0731-y

Structure/property (constitutive and spallation response) of additively manufactured 316L stainless steel
journal, October 2017


Solidification in direct metal deposition by LENS processing
journal, September 2001


Effect of Powder Reuse Times on Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V by Selective Electron Beam Melting
journal, February 2015


Processing of titanium net shapes by SLS/HIP
journal, June 1999


Rapid manufacturing of metal components by laser forming
journal, October 2006

  • Santos, Edson Costa; Shiomi, Masanari; Osakada, Kozo
  • International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol. 46, Issue 12-13
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2005.09.005

Substructure evolution of Zircaloy-4 during creep and implications for the Modified Jogged-Screw model
journal, May 2016


Hardened austenite steel with columnar sub-grain structure formed by laser melting
journal, February 2015


Thermal Behavior and Microstructural Evolution during Laser Deposition with Laser-Engineered Net Shaping: Part I. Numerical Calculations
journal, June 2008

  • Zheng, B.; Zhou, Y.; Smugeresky, J. E.
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 39, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11661-008-9557-7

Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review of Mechanical Properties
journal, July 2016


Review of Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Made by Laser-Based Additive Manufacturing Using Powder Feedstock
journal, December 2015


Analysis of defect generation in Ti–6Al–4V parts made using powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes
journal, October 2014


Overview of Materials Qualification Needs for Metal Additive Manufacturing
journal, January 2016


Structure/property (constitutive and dynamic strength/damage) characterization of additively manufactured 316L SS
journal, January 2015


Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review
journal, April 2014


Porosity formation and gas bubble retention in laser metal deposition
journal, May 2009


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Microstructural porosity in additive manufacturing: The formation and detection of pores in metal parts fabricated by powder bed fusion
    journal, June 2019

    • Sola, Antonella; Nouri, Alireza
    • Journal of Advanced Manufacturing and Processing, Vol. 1, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1002/amp2.10021

    Microstructural porosity in additive manufacturing: The formation and detection of pores in metal parts fabricated by powder bed fusion
    journal, June 2019

    • Sola, Antonella; Nouri, Alireza
    • Journal of Advanced Manufacturing and Processing, Vol. 1, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1002/amp2.10021