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Title: An Optical/Near-infrared Investigation of HD 100546 b with the Gemini Planet Imager and MagAO

In this paper, we present H band spectroscopic and Hα photometric observations of HD 100546 obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager and the Magellan Visible AO camera. We detect H band emission at the location of the protoplanet HD 100546 b, but show that the choice of data processing parameters strongly affects the morphology of this source. It appears point-like in some aggressive reductions, but rejoins an extended disk structure in the majority of the others. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this emission appears stationary on a timescale of 4.6 years, inconsistent at the 2σ level with a Keplerian clockwise orbit at 59 au in the disk plane. The H band spectrum of the emission is inconsistent with any type of low effective temperature object or accreting protoplanetary disk. It strongly suggests a scattered-light origin, as this is consistent with the spectrum of the star and the spectra extracted at other locations in the disk. A non-detection at the 5σ level of HD 100546 b in differential Hα imaging places an upper limit, assuming the protoplanet lies in a gap free of extinction, on the accretion luminosity of 1.7 × 10 -4 L ⊙ and $$M\dot{M}\lt 6.3\times {10}^{-7}\,{M}_{\mathrm{Jup}}^{2}\,{\mathrm{yr}}^{-1}$$ for 1 R Jup. These limits are comparable to the accretion luminosity and accretion rate of T-Tauri stars or LkCa 15 b. Taken together, these lines of evidence suggest that the H band source at the location of HD 100546 b is not emitted by a planetary photosphere or an accreting circumplanetary disk but is a disk feature enhanced by the point-spread function subtraction process. Lastly, this non-detection is consistent with the non-detection in the K band reported in an earlier study but does not exclude the possibility that HD 100546 b is deeply embedded.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [2] ;  [3] ; ORCiD logo [4] ; ORCiD logo [5] ; ORCiD logo [6] ; ORCiD logo [7] ;  [8] ;  [1] ;  [1] ; ORCiD logo [9] ;  [5] ; ORCiD logo [10] ; ORCiD logo [11] ; ORCiD logo [7] ; ORCiD logo [11] ; ORCiD logo [12] ; ORCiD logo [11] ; ORCiD logo [5] ; ORCiD logo [13] more »; ORCiD logo [14] ; ORCiD logo [11] ;  [15] ; ORCiD logo [16] ; ORCiD logo [7] ; ORCiD logo [17] ; ORCiD logo [18] ; ORCiD logo [19] ;  [7] ;  [20] ; ORCiD logo [21] ;  [18] ;  [22] ;  [7] ; ORCiD logo [23] ; ORCiD logo [6] ;  [23] ; ORCiD logo [8] ; ORCiD logo [24] ;  [14] ;  [25] ;  [3] ;  [14] ; ORCiD logo [25] ; ORCiD logo [26] ;  [27] ; ORCiD logo [28] ;  [25] ; ORCiD logo [3] ; ORCiD logo [16] ; ORCiD logo [3] ;  [22] ;  [6] ; ORCiD logo [25] ; ORCiD logo [29] « less
  1. Univ. of Montreal, Quebec (Canada)
  2. Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Amherst College, MA (United States)
  3. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)
  4. Univ. of Victoria, BC (Canada); National Research Council of Canada Herzberg, Victoria, BC (Canada)
  5. Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
  6. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  7. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  8. SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States)
  9. Stanford Univ., CA (United States); SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States)
  10. Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)
  11. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  12. The University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
  13. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)
  14. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  15. Subaru Telescope, Hilo, HI (United States)
  16. Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)
  17. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States) ; Universite Grenoble Alpes/CNRS (France)
  18. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  19. Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)
  20. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  21. European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile)
  22. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  23. University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)
  24. American Museum of Natural History, NY (United States)
  25. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
  26. Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)
  27. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)
  28. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
  29. The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-745723
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-3881; 930218
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Astronomical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 153; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-3881
Publisher:
IOP Publishing - AAAS
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; planetary system; planet-disk interactions; stars: individual (HD 100546); instrumentation: adaptive optics
OSTI Identifier:
1458677

Rameau, Julien, Follette, Katherine B., Pueyo, Laurent, Marois, Christian, Macintosh, Bruce, Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell, Wang, Jason J., Vega, David, Doyon, Rene, Lafreniere, David, Nielsen, Eric L., Bailey, Vanessa, Chilcote, Jeffrey K., Close, Laird M., Esposito, Thomas M., Males, Jared R., Metchev, Stanimir, Morzinski, Katie M., Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste, Wolff, Schuyler G., Ammons, S. M., Barman, Travis S., Bulger, Joanna, Cotten, Tara, Rosa, Robert J. De, Duchene, Gaspard, Fitzgerald, Michael P., Goodsell, Stephen, Graham, James R., Greenbaum, Alexandra Z., Hibon, Pascale, Hung, Li-Wei, Ingraham, Patrick, Kalas, Paul, Konopacky, Quinn, Larkin, James E., Maire, Jerome, Marchis, Franck, Oppenheimer, Rebecca, Palmer, David, Patience, Jennifer, Perrin, Marshall D., Poyneer, Lisa, Rajan, Abhijith, Rantakyro, Fredrik T., Marley, Mark S., Savransky, Dmitry, Schneider, Adam C., Sivaramakrishnan, Anand, Song, Inseok, Soummer, Remi, Thomas, Sandrine, Wallace, J. Kent, Ward-Duong, Kimberly, and Wiktorowicz, Sloane. An Optical/Near-infrared Investigation of HD 100546 b with the Gemini Planet Imager and MagAO. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa6cae.
Rameau, Julien, Follette, Katherine B., Pueyo, Laurent, Marois, Christian, Macintosh, Bruce, Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell, Wang, Jason J., Vega, David, Doyon, Rene, Lafreniere, David, Nielsen, Eric L., Bailey, Vanessa, Chilcote, Jeffrey K., Close, Laird M., Esposito, Thomas M., Males, Jared R., Metchev, Stanimir, Morzinski, Katie M., Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste, Wolff, Schuyler G., Ammons, S. M., Barman, Travis S., Bulger, Joanna, Cotten, Tara, Rosa, Robert J. De, Duchene, Gaspard, Fitzgerald, Michael P., Goodsell, Stephen, Graham, James R., Greenbaum, Alexandra Z., Hibon, Pascale, Hung, Li-Wei, Ingraham, Patrick, Kalas, Paul, Konopacky, Quinn, Larkin, James E., Maire, Jerome, Marchis, Franck, Oppenheimer, Rebecca, Palmer, David, Patience, Jennifer, Perrin, Marshall D., Poyneer, Lisa, Rajan, Abhijith, Rantakyro, Fredrik T., Marley, Mark S., Savransky, Dmitry, Schneider, Adam C., Sivaramakrishnan, Anand, Song, Inseok, Soummer, Remi, Thomas, Sandrine, Wallace, J. Kent, Ward-Duong, Kimberly, & Wiktorowicz, Sloane. An Optical/Near-infrared Investigation of HD 100546 b with the Gemini Planet Imager and MagAO. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa6cae.
Rameau, Julien, Follette, Katherine B., Pueyo, Laurent, Marois, Christian, Macintosh, Bruce, Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell, Wang, Jason J., Vega, David, Doyon, Rene, Lafreniere, David, Nielsen, Eric L., Bailey, Vanessa, Chilcote, Jeffrey K., Close, Laird M., Esposito, Thomas M., Males, Jared R., Metchev, Stanimir, Morzinski, Katie M., Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste, Wolff, Schuyler G., Ammons, S. M., Barman, Travis S., Bulger, Joanna, Cotten, Tara, Rosa, Robert J. De, Duchene, Gaspard, Fitzgerald, Michael P., Goodsell, Stephen, Graham, James R., Greenbaum, Alexandra Z., Hibon, Pascale, Hung, Li-Wei, Ingraham, Patrick, Kalas, Paul, Konopacky, Quinn, Larkin, James E., Maire, Jerome, Marchis, Franck, Oppenheimer, Rebecca, Palmer, David, Patience, Jennifer, Perrin, Marshall D., Poyneer, Lisa, Rajan, Abhijith, Rantakyro, Fredrik T., Marley, Mark S., Savransky, Dmitry, Schneider, Adam C., Sivaramakrishnan, Anand, Song, Inseok, Soummer, Remi, Thomas, Sandrine, Wallace, J. Kent, Ward-Duong, Kimberly, and Wiktorowicz, Sloane. 2017. "An Optical/Near-infrared Investigation of HD 100546 b with the Gemini Planet Imager and MagAO". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa6cae. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1458677.
@article{osti_1458677,
title = {An Optical/Near-infrared Investigation of HD 100546 b with the Gemini Planet Imager and MagAO},
author = {Rameau, Julien and Follette, Katherine B. and Pueyo, Laurent and Marois, Christian and Macintosh, Bruce and Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell and Wang, Jason J. and Vega, David and Doyon, Rene and Lafreniere, David and Nielsen, Eric L. and Bailey, Vanessa and Chilcote, Jeffrey K. and Close, Laird M. and Esposito, Thomas M. and Males, Jared R. and Metchev, Stanimir and Morzinski, Katie M. and Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste and Wolff, Schuyler G. and Ammons, S. M. and Barman, Travis S. and Bulger, Joanna and Cotten, Tara and Rosa, Robert J. De and Duchene, Gaspard and Fitzgerald, Michael P. and Goodsell, Stephen and Graham, James R. and Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. and Hibon, Pascale and Hung, Li-Wei and Ingraham, Patrick and Kalas, Paul and Konopacky, Quinn and Larkin, James E. and Maire, Jerome and Marchis, Franck and Oppenheimer, Rebecca and Palmer, David and Patience, Jennifer and Perrin, Marshall D. and Poyneer, Lisa and Rajan, Abhijith and Rantakyro, Fredrik T. and Marley, Mark S. and Savransky, Dmitry and Schneider, Adam C. and Sivaramakrishnan, Anand and Song, Inseok and Soummer, Remi and Thomas, Sandrine and Wallace, J. Kent and Ward-Duong, Kimberly and Wiktorowicz, Sloane},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we present H band spectroscopic and Hα photometric observations of HD 100546 obtained with the Gemini Planet Imager and the Magellan Visible AO camera. We detect H band emission at the location of the protoplanet HD 100546 b, but show that the choice of data processing parameters strongly affects the morphology of this source. It appears point-like in some aggressive reductions, but rejoins an extended disk structure in the majority of the others. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this emission appears stationary on a timescale of 4.6 years, inconsistent at the 2σ level with a Keplerian clockwise orbit at 59 au in the disk plane. The H band spectrum of the emission is inconsistent with any type of low effective temperature object or accreting protoplanetary disk. It strongly suggests a scattered-light origin, as this is consistent with the spectrum of the star and the spectra extracted at other locations in the disk. A non-detection at the 5σ level of HD 100546 b in differential Hα imaging places an upper limit, assuming the protoplanet lies in a gap free of extinction, on the accretion luminosity of 1.7 × 10-4 L ⊙ and $M\dot{M}\lt 6.3\times {10}^{-7}\,{M}_{\mathrm{Jup}}^{2}\,{\mathrm{yr}}^{-1}$ for 1 R Jup. These limits are comparable to the accretion luminosity and accretion rate of T-Tauri stars or LkCa 15 b. Taken together, these lines of evidence suggest that the H band source at the location of HD 100546 b is not emitted by a planetary photosphere or an accreting circumplanetary disk but is a disk feature enhanced by the point-spread function subtraction process. Lastly, this non-detection is consistent with the non-detection in the K band reported in an earlier study but does not exclude the possibility that HD 100546 b is deeply embedded.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-3881/aa6cae},
journal = {Astronomical Journal (Online)},
number = 6,
volume = 153,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}