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Title: Tracers Reveal Recharge Elevations, Groundwater Flow Paths and Travel Times on Mount Shasta, California

Abstract

Mount Shasta (4322 m) is famous for its spring water. Water for municipal, domestic and industrial use is obtained from local springs and wells, fed by annual snow melt and sustained perennially by the groundwater flow system. For this study, we examined geochemical and isotopic tracers in samples from wells and springs on Mount Shasta, at the headwaters of the Sacramento River, in order to better understand the hydrologic system. The topographic relief in the study area imparts robust signatures of recharge elevation to both stable isotopes of the water molecule (δ 18O and δD) and to dissolved noble gases, offering tools to identify recharge areas and delineate groundwater flow paths. Recharge elevations determined using stable isotopes and noble gas recharge temperatures are in close agreement and indicate that most snowmelt infiltrates at elevations between 2000 m and 2900 m, which coincides with areas of thin soils and barren land cover. Large springs in Mt Shasta City discharge at an elevation more than 1600 m lower. High elevation springs (>2000 m) yield very young water (<2 years) while lower elevation wells (1000–1500 m) produce water with a residence time ranging from 6 years to over 60 years, based on observedmore » tritium activities. Upslope movement of the tree line in the identified recharge elevation range due to a warming climate is likely to decrease infiltration and recharge, which will decrease spring discharge and production at wells, albeit with a time lag dependent upon the length of groundwater flow paths.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2];  [1]
  1. California State Univ. East Bay, Hayward, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences
  2. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), Sacramento, CA (United States). Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program
OSTI Identifier:
1458620
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-741838
Journal ID: ISSN 2073-4441; WATEGH; 896005; TRN: US1901482
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Water (Basel)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Water (Basel); Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2073-4441
Publisher:
MDPI
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 58 GEOSCIENCES; recharge; isotopes; noble gas; tritium; evapotranspiration

Citation Formats

Peters, Elizabeth, Visser, Ate, Esser, Bradley, and Moran, Jean. Tracers Reveal Recharge Elevations, Groundwater Flow Paths and Travel Times on Mount Shasta, California. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.3390/w10020097.
Peters, Elizabeth, Visser, Ate, Esser, Bradley, & Moran, Jean. Tracers Reveal Recharge Elevations, Groundwater Flow Paths and Travel Times on Mount Shasta, California. United States. doi:10.3390/w10020097.
Peters, Elizabeth, Visser, Ate, Esser, Bradley, and Moran, Jean. Tue . "Tracers Reveal Recharge Elevations, Groundwater Flow Paths and Travel Times on Mount Shasta, California". United States. doi:10.3390/w10020097. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1458620.
@article{osti_1458620,
title = {Tracers Reveal Recharge Elevations, Groundwater Flow Paths and Travel Times on Mount Shasta, California},
author = {Peters, Elizabeth and Visser, Ate and Esser, Bradley and Moran, Jean},
abstractNote = {Mount Shasta (4322 m) is famous for its spring water. Water for municipal, domestic and industrial use is obtained from local springs and wells, fed by annual snow melt and sustained perennially by the groundwater flow system. For this study, we examined geochemical and isotopic tracers in samples from wells and springs on Mount Shasta, at the headwaters of the Sacramento River, in order to better understand the hydrologic system. The topographic relief in the study area imparts robust signatures of recharge elevation to both stable isotopes of the water molecule (δ18O and δD) and to dissolved noble gases, offering tools to identify recharge areas and delineate groundwater flow paths. Recharge elevations determined using stable isotopes and noble gas recharge temperatures are in close agreement and indicate that most snowmelt infiltrates at elevations between 2000 m and 2900 m, which coincides with areas of thin soils and barren land cover. Large springs in Mt Shasta City discharge at an elevation more than 1600 m lower. High elevation springs (>2000 m) yield very young water (<2 years) while lower elevation wells (1000–1500 m) produce water with a residence time ranging from 6 years to over 60 years, based on observed tritium activities. Upslope movement of the tree line in the identified recharge elevation range due to a warming climate is likely to decrease infiltration and recharge, which will decrease spring discharge and production at wells, albeit with a time lag dependent upon the length of groundwater flow paths.},
doi = {10.3390/w10020097},
journal = {Water (Basel)},
number = 2,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

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