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Title: Search for thermal X-ray features from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi soft X-ray spectrometer*

The Crab nebula originated from a core-collapse supernova (SN) explosion observed in 1054 A.D. When viewed as a supernova remnant (SNR), it has an anomalously low observed ejecta mass and kinetic energy for an Fe-core collapse SN. Intensive searches were made for a massive shell that solves this discrepancy, but none has been detected. An alternative idea is that the SN1054 is an electron-capture (EC) explosion with a lower explosion energy by an order of magnitude than Fe-core collapse SNe. In the X-rays, imaging searches were performed for the plasma emission from the shell in the Crab outskirts to set a stringent upper limit to the X-ray emitting mass. However, the extreme brightness of the source hampers access to its vicinity. We thus employed spectroscopic technique using the X-ray micro-calorimeter onboard the Hitomi satellite. By exploiting its superb energy resolution, we set an upper limit for emission or absorption features from yet undetected thermal plasma in the 2–12 keV range. We also re-evaluated the existing Chandra and XMM-Newton data. By assembling these results, a new upper limit was obtained for the X-ray plasma mass of ≲1 M⊙ for a wide range of assumed shell radius, size, and plasma temperature bothmore » in and out of the collisional equilibrium. To compare with the observation, we further performed hydrodynamic simulations of the Crab SNR for two SN models (Fe-core versus EC) under two SN environments (uniform ISM versus progenitor wind). We found that the observed mass limit can be compatible with both SN models if the SN environment has a low density of ≲ 0.03 cm -3 (Fe core) or ≲ 0.1 cm -3 (EC) for the uniform density, or a progenitor wind density somewhat less than that provided by a mass loss rate of 10 -5M⊙ yr -1 at 20 km s -1 for the wind environment.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [4] ;  [11] ;  [12] ;  [10] ;  [13] ;  [1] ;  [5] ;  [14] ;  [2] ;  [2] more »;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [15] ;  [16] ;  [16] ;  [5] ;  [17] ;  [18] ;  [19] ;  [6] ;  [11] ;  [20] ;  [21] ;  [22] ;  [23] ;  [24] ;  [25] ;  [2] ;  [26] ;  [2] ;  [27] ;  [28] ;  [16] ;  [29] ;  [29] ;  [30] ;  [16] ;  [31] ;  [32] ;  [33] ;  [5] ;  [34] ;  [35] ;  [18] ;  [16] ;  [36] ;  [16] ;  [16] ;  [16] ;  [18] ;  [37] ;  [5] ;  [38] ;  [39] ;  [40] ;  [41] ;  [5] ;  [5] ;  [21] ;  [34] ;  [42] ;  [43] ;  [16] ;  [44] ;  [16] ;  [45] ;  [46] ;  [47] ;  [31] ;  [26] ;  [48] ;  [5] ;  [49] ;  [5] ;  [50] ;  [27] ;  [51] ;  [16] ;  [26] ;  [52] ;  [5] ;  [32] ;  [53] ;  [54] ;  [55] ;  [2] ;  [10] ;  [56] ;  [48] ;  [16] ;  [31] ;  [57] ;  [21] ;  [5] ;  [30] ;  [29] ;  [58] ;  [59] ;  [16] ;  [32] ;  [60] ;  [52] ;  [38] ;  [61] ;  [62] ;  [63] ;  [64] ;  [18] ;  [21] ;  [5] ;  [61] ;  [16] ;  [65] ;  [6] ;  [5] ;  [19] ;  [5] ;  [29] ;  [59] ;  [66] ;  [34] ;  [5] ;  [53] ;  [16] ;  [53] ;  [16] ;  [67] ;  [68] ;  [45] ;  [5] ;  [18] ;  [52] ;  [16] ;  [11] ;  [5] ;  [69] ;  [16] ;  [41] ;  [70] ;  [71] ;  [21] ;  [16] ;  [57] ;  [16] ;  [52] ;  [16] ;  [44] ;  [72] ;  [21] ;  [73] ;  [31] ;  [73] ;  [7] ;  [74] ;  [16] ;  [40] ;  [16] ;  [32] ;  [44] ;  [44] ;  [75] ;  [34] ;  [16] ;  [48] ;  [76] ;  [70] ;  [23] ;  [16] ;  [77] ;  [51] ;  [50] ;  [18] ;  [5] ;  [31] ;  [16] ;  [30] ;  [61] ;  [78] ;  [41] ;  [20] ;  [79] ;  [56] ;  [80] ;  [81] « less
  1. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2, Ireland
  2. SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, The Netherlands
  3. Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601, Japan
  4. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  5. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
  6. Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, ch. d’Écogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland
  7. Department of Physics, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577, Japan
  8. Department of Physics and Oskar Klein Center, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
  9. Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan; Research Center for the Early Universe, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
  10. Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
  11. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
  12. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550, USA
  13. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock St, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
  14. Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8120, USA; Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8101, USA
  15. Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK
  16. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210, Japan
  17. Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan; The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
  18. Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397, Japan
  19. Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA, UK
  20. Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan
  21. School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
  22. Fujita Health University, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192, Japan
  23. Physics Department, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Dr., Coral Gables, FL 33146, USA
  24. Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary’s University, 923 Robie Street, Halifax, NS, B3H 3C3, Canada
  25. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK
  26. Laboratoire APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris, France; CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France
  27. European Space Research and Technology Center, Keplerlaan 1 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands
  28. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aichi University of Education, 1 Hirosawa, Igaya-cho, Kariya, Aichi 448-8543, Japan
  29. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA; Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA
  30. Department of Applied Physics and Electronic Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan
  31. Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602, Japan
  32. Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Kyoto, Japan
  33. Department of Physics, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337, Japan
  34. Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8501, Japan
  35. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
  36. Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-8506, Japan
  37. SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, The Netherlands; Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
  38. Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
  39. Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
  40. Department of Physics, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551, Japan
  41. Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
  42. Department of Physics, Toho University, 2-2-1 Miyama, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510, Japan
  43. Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan
  44. Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-Cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
  45. European Space Astronomy Center, Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n., 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain
  46. Universities Space Research Association, 7178 Columbia Gateway Drive, Columbia, MD 21046, USA; National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd, Arlington, VA 22230, USA
  47. Department of Electronic Information Systems, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 307 Fukasaku, Minuma-ku, Saitama, Saitama 337-8570, Japan
  48. Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
  49. CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France
  50. Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
  51. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
  52. Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan
  53. Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601, Japan
  54. Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
  55. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada
  56. Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
  57. Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Kunigami-gun, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan
  58. Faculty of Liberal Arts, Tohoku Gakuin University, 2-1-1 Tenjinzawa, Izumi-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 981-3193, Japan
  59. Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
  60. Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa-machi, Yamagata, Yamagata 990-8560, Japan
  61. Department of Physics, Nara Women’s University, Kitauoyanishi-machi, Nara, Nara 630-8506, Japan
  62. Department of Teacher Training and School Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake-cho, Nara, Nara 630-8528, Japan
  63. Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramakiazaaoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan; Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramakiazaaoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan
  64. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  65. Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027, USA
  66. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
  67. Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397, Japan; Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210, Japan
  68. Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258, Japan
  69. Astronomical Observatory of Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków, Poland
  70. Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8120, USA
  71. Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Aichi 464-8601, Japan
  72. Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching, Germany
  73. Department of Physics, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama, 338-8570, Japan
  74. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA; Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
  75. Faculty of Education, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan
  76. Faculty of Health Sciences, Nihon Fukushi University , 26-2 Higashi Haemi-cho, Handa, Aichi 475-0012, Japan
  77. MTA-Eötvös University Lendület Hot Universe Research Group, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A, Budapest, 1117, Hungary; Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno, 611 37, Czech Republic; School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
  78. Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA
  79. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
  80. Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, 8-9-1 Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501, Japan; Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583, Japan
  81. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515; JP15H00773; JP15H00785; JP15H02070; JP15H02090; JP15H03639; JP15H03641; JP15H03642; JP15H05438; JP15H06896; JP15K05107; JP15K17610; JP15K17657; JP16H00949; JP16H03983; JP16H06342; JP16J02333; JP16K05295; JP16K05296; JP16K05300; JP16K05309; JP16K13787; JP16K17667; JP16K17672; JP16K17673; JP17H02864; JP17K05393; JP21659292; JP23340055; JP23340071; JP23540280; JP24105007; JP24540232; JP25105516; JP25109004; JP25247028; JP25287042; JP25400236; JP25800119; JP26109506; JP26220703; JP26400228; JP26610047; JP26800102; NNX15AC76G; NNX15AE16G; NNX15AK71G; NNX15AU54G; NNX15AW94G; NNG15PP48P; ST/L00075X/1; 340442; ST/J003697/2; PF6-170160
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 70; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6264
Publisher:
Astronomical Society of Japan
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Contributing Orgs:
Hitomi Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS
OSTI Identifier:
1458450

Aharonian, Felix, Akamatsu, Hiroki, Akimoto, Fumie, Allen, Steven W., Angelini, Lorella, Audard, Marc, Awaki, Hisamitsu, Axelsson, Magnus, Bamba, Aya, Bautz, Marshall W., Blandford, Roger, Brenneman, Laura W., Brown, Gregory V., Bulbul, Esra, Cackett, Edward M., Chernyakova, Maria, Chiao, Meng P., Coppi, Paolo S., Costantini, Elisa, de Plaa, Jelle, de Vries, Cor P., den Herder, Jan-Willem, Done, Chris, Dotani, Tadayasu, Ebisawa, Ken, Eckart, Megan E., Enoto, Teruaki, Ezoe, Yuichiro, Fabian, Andrew C., Ferrigno, Carlo, Foster, Adam R., Fujimoto, Ryuichi, Fukazawa, Yasushi, Furuzawa, Akihiro, Galeazzi, Massimiliano, Gallo, Luigi C., Gandhi, Poshak, Giustini, Margherita, Goldwurm, Andrea, Gu, Liyi, Guainazzi, Matteo, Haba, Yoshito, Hagino, Kouichi, Hamaguchi, Kenji, Harrus, Ilana M., Hatsukade, Isamu, Hayashi, Katsuhiro, Hayashi, Takayuki, Hayashida, Kiyoshi, Hiraga, Junko S., Hornschemeier, Ann, Hoshino, Akio, Hughes, John P., Ichinohe, Yuto, Iizuka, Ryo, Inoue, Hajime, Inoue, Yoshiyuki, Ishida, Manabu, Ishikawa, Kumi, Ishisaki, Yoshitaka, Kaastra, Jelle, Kallman, Tim, Kamae, Tsuneyoshi, Kataoka, Jun, Katsuda, Satoru, Kawai, Nobuyuki, Kelley, Richard L., Kilbourne, Caroline A., Kitaguchi, Takao, Kitamoto, Shunji, Kitayama, Tetsu, Kohmura, Takayoshi, Kokubun, Motohide, Koyama, Katsuji, Koyama, Shu, Kretschmar, Peter, Krimm, Hans A., Kubota, Aya, Kunieda, Hideyo, Laurent, Philippe, Lee, Shiu-Hang, Leutenegger, Maurice A., Limousin, Olivier, Loewenstein, Michael, Long, Knox S., Lumb, David, Madejski, Greg, Maeda, Yoshitomo, Maier, Daniel, Makishima, Kazuo, Markevitch, Maxim, Matsumoto, Hironori, Matsushita, Kyoko, McCammon, Dan, McNamara, Brian R., Mehdipour, Missagh, Miller, Eric D., Miller, Jon M., Mineshige, Shin, Mitsuda, Kazuhisa, Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki, Miyazawa, Takuya, Mizuno, Tsunefumi, Mori, Hideyuki, Mori, Koji, Mukai, Koji, Murakami, Hiroshi, Mushotzky, Richard F., Nakagawa, Takao, Nakajima, Hiroshi, Nakamori, Takeshi, Nakashima, Shinya, Nakazawa, Kazuhiro, Nobukawa, Kumiko K., Nobukawa, Masayoshi, Noda, Hirofumi, Odaka, Hirokazu, Ohashi, Takaya, Ohno, Masanori, Okajima, Takashi, Ota, Naomi, Ozaki, Masanobu, Paerels, Frits, Paltani, Stéphane, Petre, Robert, Pinto, Ciro, Porter, Frederick S., Pottschmidt, Katja, Reynolds, Christopher S., Safi-Harb, Samar, Saito, Shinya, Sakai, Kazuhiro, Sasaki, Toru, Sato, Goro, Sato, Kosuke, Sato, Rie, Sato, Toshiki, Sawada, Makoto, Schartel, Norbert, Serlemtsos, Peter J., Seta, Hiromi, Shidatsu, Megumi, Simionescu, Aurora, Smith, Randall K., Soong, Yang, Stawarz, Łukasz, Sugawara, Yasuharu, Sugita, Satoshi, Szymkowiak, Andrew, Tajima, Hiroyasu, Takahashi, Hiromitsu, Takahashi, Tadayuki, Takeda, Shin΄ichiro, Takei, Yoh, Tamagawa, Toru, Tamura, Takayuki, Tanaka, Takaaki, Tanaka, Yasuo, Tanaka, Yasuyuki T., Tashiro, Makoto S., Tawara, Yuzuru, Terada, Yukikatsu, Terashima, Yuichi, Tombesi, Francesco, Tomida, Hiroshi, Tsuboi, Yohko, Tsujimoto, Masahiro, Tsunemi, Hiroshi, Tsuru, Takeshi Go, Uchida, Hiroyuki, Uchiyama, Hideki, Uchiyama, Yasunobu, Ueda, Shutaro, Ueda, Yoshihiro, Uno, Shin΄ichiro, Urry, C. Megan, Ursino, Eugenio, Watanabe, Shin, Werner, Norbert, Wilkins, Dan R., Williams, Brian J., Yamada, Shinya, Yamaguchi, Hiroya, Yamaoka, Kazutaka, Yamasaki, Noriko Y., Yamauchi, Makoto, Yamauchi, Shigeo, Yaqoob, Tahir, Yatsu, Yoichi, Yonetoku, Daisuke, Zhuravleva, Irina, Zoghbi, Abderahmen, Tominaga, Nozomu, and Moriya, Takashi J.. Search for thermal X-ray features from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi soft X-ray spectrometer*. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1093/pasj/psx072.
Aharonian, Felix, Akamatsu, Hiroki, Akimoto, Fumie, Allen, Steven W., Angelini, Lorella, Audard, Marc, Awaki, Hisamitsu, Axelsson, Magnus, Bamba, Aya, Bautz, Marshall W., Blandford, Roger, Brenneman, Laura W., Brown, Gregory V., Bulbul, Esra, Cackett, Edward M., Chernyakova, Maria, Chiao, Meng P., Coppi, Paolo S., Costantini, Elisa, de Plaa, Jelle, de Vries, Cor P., den Herder, Jan-Willem, Done, Chris, Dotani, Tadayasu, Ebisawa, Ken, Eckart, Megan E., Enoto, Teruaki, Ezoe, Yuichiro, Fabian, Andrew C., Ferrigno, Carlo, Foster, Adam R., Fujimoto, Ryuichi, Fukazawa, Yasushi, Furuzawa, Akihiro, Galeazzi, Massimiliano, Gallo, Luigi C., Gandhi, Poshak, Giustini, Margherita, Goldwurm, Andrea, Gu, Liyi, Guainazzi, Matteo, Haba, Yoshito, Hagino, Kouichi, Hamaguchi, Kenji, Harrus, Ilana M., Hatsukade, Isamu, Hayashi, Katsuhiro, Hayashi, Takayuki, Hayashida, Kiyoshi, Hiraga, Junko S., Hornschemeier, Ann, Hoshino, Akio, Hughes, John P., Ichinohe, Yuto, Iizuka, Ryo, Inoue, Hajime, Inoue, Yoshiyuki, Ishida, Manabu, Ishikawa, Kumi, Ishisaki, Yoshitaka, Kaastra, Jelle, Kallman, Tim, Kamae, Tsuneyoshi, Kataoka, Jun, Katsuda, Satoru, Kawai, Nobuyuki, Kelley, Richard L., Kilbourne, Caroline A., Kitaguchi, Takao, Kitamoto, Shunji, Kitayama, Tetsu, Kohmura, Takayoshi, Kokubun, Motohide, Koyama, Katsuji, Koyama, Shu, Kretschmar, Peter, Krimm, Hans A., Kubota, Aya, Kunieda, Hideyo, Laurent, Philippe, Lee, Shiu-Hang, Leutenegger, Maurice A., Limousin, Olivier, Loewenstein, Michael, Long, Knox S., Lumb, David, Madejski, Greg, Maeda, Yoshitomo, Maier, Daniel, Makishima, Kazuo, Markevitch, Maxim, Matsumoto, Hironori, Matsushita, Kyoko, McCammon, Dan, McNamara, Brian R., Mehdipour, Missagh, Miller, Eric D., Miller, Jon M., Mineshige, Shin, Mitsuda, Kazuhisa, Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki, Miyazawa, Takuya, Mizuno, Tsunefumi, Mori, Hideyuki, Mori, Koji, Mukai, Koji, Murakami, Hiroshi, Mushotzky, Richard F., Nakagawa, Takao, Nakajima, Hiroshi, Nakamori, Takeshi, Nakashima, Shinya, Nakazawa, Kazuhiro, Nobukawa, Kumiko K., Nobukawa, Masayoshi, Noda, Hirofumi, Odaka, Hirokazu, Ohashi, Takaya, Ohno, Masanori, Okajima, Takashi, Ota, Naomi, Ozaki, Masanobu, Paerels, Frits, Paltani, Stéphane, Petre, Robert, Pinto, Ciro, Porter, Frederick S., Pottschmidt, Katja, Reynolds, Christopher S., Safi-Harb, Samar, Saito, Shinya, Sakai, Kazuhiro, Sasaki, Toru, Sato, Goro, Sato, Kosuke, Sato, Rie, Sato, Toshiki, Sawada, Makoto, Schartel, Norbert, Serlemtsos, Peter J., Seta, Hiromi, Shidatsu, Megumi, Simionescu, Aurora, Smith, Randall K., Soong, Yang, Stawarz, Łukasz, Sugawara, Yasuharu, Sugita, Satoshi, Szymkowiak, Andrew, Tajima, Hiroyasu, Takahashi, Hiromitsu, Takahashi, Tadayuki, Takeda, Shin΄ichiro, Takei, Yoh, Tamagawa, Toru, Tamura, Takayuki, Tanaka, Takaaki, Tanaka, Yasuo, Tanaka, Yasuyuki T., Tashiro, Makoto S., Tawara, Yuzuru, Terada, Yukikatsu, Terashima, Yuichi, Tombesi, Francesco, Tomida, Hiroshi, Tsuboi, Yohko, Tsujimoto, Masahiro, Tsunemi, Hiroshi, Tsuru, Takeshi Go, Uchida, Hiroyuki, Uchiyama, Hideki, Uchiyama, Yasunobu, Ueda, Shutaro, Ueda, Yoshihiro, Uno, Shin΄ichiro, Urry, C. Megan, Ursino, Eugenio, Watanabe, Shin, Werner, Norbert, Wilkins, Dan R., Williams, Brian J., Yamada, Shinya, Yamaguchi, Hiroya, Yamaoka, Kazutaka, Yamasaki, Noriko Y., Yamauchi, Makoto, Yamauchi, Shigeo, Yaqoob, Tahir, Yatsu, Yoichi, Yonetoku, Daisuke, Zhuravleva, Irina, Zoghbi, Abderahmen, Tominaga, Nozomu, & Moriya, Takashi J.. Search for thermal X-ray features from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi soft X-ray spectrometer*. United States. doi:10.1093/pasj/psx072.
Aharonian, Felix, Akamatsu, Hiroki, Akimoto, Fumie, Allen, Steven W., Angelini, Lorella, Audard, Marc, Awaki, Hisamitsu, Axelsson, Magnus, Bamba, Aya, Bautz, Marshall W., Blandford, Roger, Brenneman, Laura W., Brown, Gregory V., Bulbul, Esra, Cackett, Edward M., Chernyakova, Maria, Chiao, Meng P., Coppi, Paolo S., Costantini, Elisa, de Plaa, Jelle, de Vries, Cor P., den Herder, Jan-Willem, Done, Chris, Dotani, Tadayasu, Ebisawa, Ken, Eckart, Megan E., Enoto, Teruaki, Ezoe, Yuichiro, Fabian, Andrew C., Ferrigno, Carlo, Foster, Adam R., Fujimoto, Ryuichi, Fukazawa, Yasushi, Furuzawa, Akihiro, Galeazzi, Massimiliano, Gallo, Luigi C., Gandhi, Poshak, Giustini, Margherita, Goldwurm, Andrea, Gu, Liyi, Guainazzi, Matteo, Haba, Yoshito, Hagino, Kouichi, Hamaguchi, Kenji, Harrus, Ilana M., Hatsukade, Isamu, Hayashi, Katsuhiro, Hayashi, Takayuki, Hayashida, Kiyoshi, Hiraga, Junko S., Hornschemeier, Ann, Hoshino, Akio, Hughes, John P., Ichinohe, Yuto, Iizuka, Ryo, Inoue, Hajime, Inoue, Yoshiyuki, Ishida, Manabu, Ishikawa, Kumi, Ishisaki, Yoshitaka, Kaastra, Jelle, Kallman, Tim, Kamae, Tsuneyoshi, Kataoka, Jun, Katsuda, Satoru, Kawai, Nobuyuki, Kelley, Richard L., Kilbourne, Caroline A., Kitaguchi, Takao, Kitamoto, Shunji, Kitayama, Tetsu, Kohmura, Takayoshi, Kokubun, Motohide, Koyama, Katsuji, Koyama, Shu, Kretschmar, Peter, Krimm, Hans A., Kubota, Aya, Kunieda, Hideyo, Laurent, Philippe, Lee, Shiu-Hang, Leutenegger, Maurice A., Limousin, Olivier, Loewenstein, Michael, Long, Knox S., Lumb, David, Madejski, Greg, Maeda, Yoshitomo, Maier, Daniel, Makishima, Kazuo, Markevitch, Maxim, Matsumoto, Hironori, Matsushita, Kyoko, McCammon, Dan, McNamara, Brian R., Mehdipour, Missagh, Miller, Eric D., Miller, Jon M., Mineshige, Shin, Mitsuda, Kazuhisa, Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki, Miyazawa, Takuya, Mizuno, Tsunefumi, Mori, Hideyuki, Mori, Koji, Mukai, Koji, Murakami, Hiroshi, Mushotzky, Richard F., Nakagawa, Takao, Nakajima, Hiroshi, Nakamori, Takeshi, Nakashima, Shinya, Nakazawa, Kazuhiro, Nobukawa, Kumiko K., Nobukawa, Masayoshi, Noda, Hirofumi, Odaka, Hirokazu, Ohashi, Takaya, Ohno, Masanori, Okajima, Takashi, Ota, Naomi, Ozaki, Masanobu, Paerels, Frits, Paltani, Stéphane, Petre, Robert, Pinto, Ciro, Porter, Frederick S., Pottschmidt, Katja, Reynolds, Christopher S., Safi-Harb, Samar, Saito, Shinya, Sakai, Kazuhiro, Sasaki, Toru, Sato, Goro, Sato, Kosuke, Sato, Rie, Sato, Toshiki, Sawada, Makoto, Schartel, Norbert, Serlemtsos, Peter J., Seta, Hiromi, Shidatsu, Megumi, Simionescu, Aurora, Smith, Randall K., Soong, Yang, Stawarz, Łukasz, Sugawara, Yasuharu, Sugita, Satoshi, Szymkowiak, Andrew, Tajima, Hiroyasu, Takahashi, Hiromitsu, Takahashi, Tadayuki, Takeda, Shin΄ichiro, Takei, Yoh, Tamagawa, Toru, Tamura, Takayuki, Tanaka, Takaaki, Tanaka, Yasuo, Tanaka, Yasuyuki T., Tashiro, Makoto S., Tawara, Yuzuru, Terada, Yukikatsu, Terashima, Yuichi, Tombesi, Francesco, Tomida, Hiroshi, Tsuboi, Yohko, Tsujimoto, Masahiro, Tsunemi, Hiroshi, Tsuru, Takeshi Go, Uchida, Hiroyuki, Uchiyama, Hideki, Uchiyama, Yasunobu, Ueda, Shutaro, Ueda, Yoshihiro, Uno, Shin΄ichiro, Urry, C. Megan, Ursino, Eugenio, Watanabe, Shin, Werner, Norbert, Wilkins, Dan R., Williams, Brian J., Yamada, Shinya, Yamaguchi, Hiroya, Yamaoka, Kazutaka, Yamasaki, Noriko Y., Yamauchi, Makoto, Yamauchi, Shigeo, Yaqoob, Tahir, Yatsu, Yoichi, Yonetoku, Daisuke, Zhuravleva, Irina, Zoghbi, Abderahmen, Tominaga, Nozomu, and Moriya, Takashi J.. 2018. "Search for thermal X-ray features from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi soft X-ray spectrometer*". United States. doi:10.1093/pasj/psx072.
@article{osti_1458450,
title = {Search for thermal X-ray features from the Crab nebula with the Hitomi soft X-ray spectrometer*},
author = {Aharonian, Felix and Akamatsu, Hiroki and Akimoto, Fumie and Allen, Steven W. and Angelini, Lorella and Audard, Marc and Awaki, Hisamitsu and Axelsson, Magnus and Bamba, Aya and Bautz, Marshall W. and Blandford, Roger and Brenneman, Laura W. and Brown, Gregory V. and Bulbul, Esra and Cackett, Edward M. and Chernyakova, Maria and Chiao, Meng P. and Coppi, Paolo S. and Costantini, Elisa and de Plaa, Jelle and de Vries, Cor P. and den Herder, Jan-Willem and Done, Chris and Dotani, Tadayasu and Ebisawa, Ken and Eckart, Megan E. and Enoto, Teruaki and Ezoe, Yuichiro and Fabian, Andrew C. and Ferrigno, Carlo and Foster, Adam R. and Fujimoto, Ryuichi and Fukazawa, Yasushi and Furuzawa, Akihiro and Galeazzi, Massimiliano and Gallo, Luigi C. and Gandhi, Poshak and Giustini, Margherita and Goldwurm, Andrea and Gu, Liyi and Guainazzi, Matteo and Haba, Yoshito and Hagino, Kouichi and Hamaguchi, Kenji and Harrus, Ilana M. and Hatsukade, Isamu and Hayashi, Katsuhiro and Hayashi, Takayuki and Hayashida, Kiyoshi and Hiraga, Junko S. and Hornschemeier, Ann and Hoshino, Akio and Hughes, John P. and Ichinohe, Yuto and Iizuka, Ryo and Inoue, Hajime and Inoue, Yoshiyuki and Ishida, Manabu and Ishikawa, Kumi and Ishisaki, Yoshitaka and Kaastra, Jelle and Kallman, Tim and Kamae, Tsuneyoshi and Kataoka, Jun and Katsuda, Satoru and Kawai, Nobuyuki and Kelley, Richard L. and Kilbourne, Caroline A. and Kitaguchi, Takao and Kitamoto, Shunji and Kitayama, Tetsu and Kohmura, Takayoshi and Kokubun, Motohide and Koyama, Katsuji and Koyama, Shu and Kretschmar, Peter and Krimm, Hans A. and Kubota, Aya and Kunieda, Hideyo and Laurent, Philippe and Lee, Shiu-Hang and Leutenegger, Maurice A. and Limousin, Olivier and Loewenstein, Michael and Long, Knox S. and Lumb, David and Madejski, Greg and Maeda, Yoshitomo and Maier, Daniel and Makishima, Kazuo and Markevitch, Maxim and Matsumoto, Hironori and Matsushita, Kyoko and McCammon, Dan and McNamara, Brian R. and Mehdipour, Missagh and Miller, Eric D. and Miller, Jon M. and Mineshige, Shin and Mitsuda, Kazuhisa and Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki and Miyazawa, Takuya and Mizuno, Tsunefumi and Mori, Hideyuki and Mori, Koji and Mukai, Koji and Murakami, Hiroshi and Mushotzky, Richard F. and Nakagawa, Takao and Nakajima, Hiroshi and Nakamori, Takeshi and Nakashima, Shinya and Nakazawa, Kazuhiro and Nobukawa, Kumiko K. and Nobukawa, Masayoshi and Noda, Hirofumi and Odaka, Hirokazu and Ohashi, Takaya and Ohno, Masanori and Okajima, Takashi and Ota, Naomi and Ozaki, Masanobu and Paerels, Frits and Paltani, Stéphane and Petre, Robert and Pinto, Ciro and Porter, Frederick S. and Pottschmidt, Katja and Reynolds, Christopher S. and Safi-Harb, Samar and Saito, Shinya and Sakai, Kazuhiro and Sasaki, Toru and Sato, Goro and Sato, Kosuke and Sato, Rie and Sato, Toshiki and Sawada, Makoto and Schartel, Norbert and Serlemtsos, Peter J. and Seta, Hiromi and Shidatsu, Megumi and Simionescu, Aurora and Smith, Randall K. and Soong, Yang and Stawarz, Łukasz and Sugawara, Yasuharu and Sugita, Satoshi and Szymkowiak, Andrew and Tajima, Hiroyasu and Takahashi, Hiromitsu and Takahashi, Tadayuki and Takeda, Shin΄ichiro and Takei, Yoh and Tamagawa, Toru and Tamura, Takayuki and Tanaka, Takaaki and Tanaka, Yasuo and Tanaka, Yasuyuki T. and Tashiro, Makoto S. and Tawara, Yuzuru and Terada, Yukikatsu and Terashima, Yuichi and Tombesi, Francesco and Tomida, Hiroshi and Tsuboi, Yohko and Tsujimoto, Masahiro and Tsunemi, Hiroshi and Tsuru, Takeshi Go and Uchida, Hiroyuki and Uchiyama, Hideki and Uchiyama, Yasunobu and Ueda, Shutaro and Ueda, Yoshihiro and Uno, Shin΄ichiro and Urry, C. Megan and Ursino, Eugenio and Watanabe, Shin and Werner, Norbert and Wilkins, Dan R. and Williams, Brian J. and Yamada, Shinya and Yamaguchi, Hiroya and Yamaoka, Kazutaka and Yamasaki, Noriko Y. and Yamauchi, Makoto and Yamauchi, Shigeo and Yaqoob, Tahir and Yatsu, Yoichi and Yonetoku, Daisuke and Zhuravleva, Irina and Zoghbi, Abderahmen and Tominaga, Nozomu and Moriya, Takashi J.},
abstractNote = {The Crab nebula originated from a core-collapse supernova (SN) explosion observed in 1054 A.D. When viewed as a supernova remnant (SNR), it has an anomalously low observed ejecta mass and kinetic energy for an Fe-core collapse SN. Intensive searches were made for a massive shell that solves this discrepancy, but none has been detected. An alternative idea is that the SN1054 is an electron-capture (EC) explosion with a lower explosion energy by an order of magnitude than Fe-core collapse SNe. In the X-rays, imaging searches were performed for the plasma emission from the shell in the Crab outskirts to set a stringent upper limit to the X-ray emitting mass. However, the extreme brightness of the source hampers access to its vicinity. We thus employed spectroscopic technique using the X-ray micro-calorimeter onboard the Hitomi satellite. By exploiting its superb energy resolution, we set an upper limit for emission or absorption features from yet undetected thermal plasma in the 2–12 keV range. We also re-evaluated the existing Chandra and XMM-Newton data. By assembling these results, a new upper limit was obtained for the X-ray plasma mass of ≲1 M⊙ for a wide range of assumed shell radius, size, and plasma temperature both in and out of the collisional equilibrium. To compare with the observation, we further performed hydrodynamic simulations of the Crab SNR for two SN models (Fe-core versus EC) under two SN environments (uniform ISM versus progenitor wind). We found that the observed mass limit can be compatible with both SN models if the SN environment has a low density of ≲ 0.03 cm-3 (Fe core) or ≲ 0.1 cm-3 (EC) for the uniform density, or a progenitor wind density somewhat less than that provided by a mass loss rate of 10-5M⊙ yr-1 at 20 km s-1 for the wind environment.},
doi = {10.1093/pasj/psx072},
journal = {Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan},
number = 2,
volume = 70,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}