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Title: Temperature structure in the Perseus cluster core observed with Hitomi*

The present paper investigates the temperature structure of the X-ray emitting plasma in the core of the Perseus cluster using the 1.8–20.0 keV data obtained with the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard the Hitomi Observatory. A series of four observations were carried out, with a total effective exposure time of 338 ks and covering a central region ~7' in diameter. The SXS was operated with an energy resolution of ~5 eV (full width at half maximum) at 5.9 keV. Not only fine structures of K-shell lines in He-like ions but also transitions from higher principal quantum numbers are clearly resolved from Si through Fe. This enables us to perform temperature diagnostics using the line ratios of Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe, and to provide the first direct measurement of the excitation temperature and ionization temperature in the Perseus cluster. The observed spectrum is roughly reproduced by a single temperature thermal plasma model in collisional ionization equilibrium, but detailed line ratio diagnostics reveal slight deviations from this approximation. In particular, the data exhibit an apparent trend of increasing ionization temperature with increasing atomic mass, as well as small differences between the ionization and excitation temperatures for Fe, the only elementmore » for which both temperatures can be measured. The best-fit two-temperature models suggest a combination of 3 and 5 keV gas, which is consistent with the idea that the observed small deviations from a single temperature approximation are due to the effects of projection of the known radial temperature gradient in the cluster core along the line of sight. Comparison with the Chandra/ACIS and the XMM-Newton/RGS results on the other hand suggests that additional lower-temperature components are present in the ICM but not detectable by Hitomi SXS given its 1.8–20 keV energy band.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [4] ;  [11] ;  [12] ;  [10] ;  [13] ;  [14] ;  [5] ;  [15] ;  [2] ;  [2] more »;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [16] ;  [17] ;  [17] ;  [5] ;  [18] ;  [19] ;  [20] ;  [6] ;  [11] ;  [21] ;  [22] ;  [23] ;  [24] ;  [25] ;  [26] ;  [27] ;  [2] ;  [28] ;  [2] ;  [29] ;  [30] ;  [31] ;  [32] ;  [32] ;  [33] ;  [34] ;  [35] ;  [36] ;  [37] ;  [5] ;  [38] ;  [39] ;  [19] ;  [17] ;  [40] ;  [17] ;  [17] ;  [17] ;  [19] ;  [17] ;  [41] ;  [5] ;  [42] ;  [43] ;  [42] ;  [44] ;  [45] ;  [5] ;  [5] ;  [22] ;  [38] ;  [46] ;  [31] ;  [17] ;  [47] ;  [17] ;  [48] ;  [49] ;  [50] ;  [35] ;  [28] ;  [51] ;  [5] ;  [52] ;  [53] ;  [54] ;  [29] ;  [55] ;  [17] ;  [28] ;  [56] ;  [5] ;  [36] ;  [23] ;  [57] ;  [58] ;  [2] ;  [10] ;  [59] ;  [51] ;  [17] ;  [35] ;  [60] ;  [61] ;  [5] ;  [33] ;  [32] ;  [62] ;  [63] ;  [17] ;  [36] ;  [64] ;  [56] ;  [9] ;  [65] ;  [66] ;  [67] ;  [55] ;  [19] ;  [22] ;  [5] ;  [65] ;  [17] ;  [68] ;  [6] ;  [5] ;  [20] ;  [5] ;  [32] ;  [63] ;  [69] ;  [38] ;  [5] ;  [23] ;  [17] ;  [23] ;  [17] ;  [70] ;  [48] ;  [5] ;  [19] ;  [56] ;  [17] ;  [11] ;  [5] ;  [71] ;  [17] ;  [45] ;  [72] ;  [3] ;  [22] ;  [17] ;  [60] ;  [17] ;  [73] ;  [17] ;  [47] ;  [74] ;  [22] ;  [75] ;  [35] ;  [75] ;  [7] ;  [76] ;  [17] ;  [44] ;  [17] ;  [36] ;  [47] ;  [47] ;  [77] ;  [38] ;  [17] ;  [51] ;  [78] ;  [72] ;  [25] ;  [17] ;  [79] ;  [55] ;  [54] ;  [19] ;  [53] ;  [80] ;  [17] ;  [33] ;  [65] ;  [32] ;  [45] ;  [21] ;  [81] ;  [59] « less
  1. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2, Ireland; Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, 69029 Heidelberg, Germany; Gran Sasso Science Institute, viale Francesco Crispi, 7 67100 L’Aquila (AQ), Italy
  2. SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, The Netherlands
  3. Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601, Japan
  4. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  5. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
  6. Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, ch. d’Écogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland
  7. Department of Physics, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577, Japan
  8. Department of Physics and Oskar Klein Center, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
  9. Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan; Research Center for the Early Universe, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
  10. Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
  11. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden St., MS-4. Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
  12. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550, USA
  13. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock St, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
  14. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2, Ireland
  15. Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8101, USA; Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8120, USA
  16. Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK
  17. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210, Japan
  18. Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan; The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
  19. Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397, Japan
  20. Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA, UK
  21. Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan
  22. School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
  23. Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601, Japan
  24. Fujita Health University, 1-98 Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake-cho, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192, Japan
  25. Physics Department, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Dr., Coral Gables, FL 33146, USA
  26. Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary’s University, 923 Robie Street, Halifax, NS, B3H 3C3, Canada
  27. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK
  28. Laboratoire APC, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75013 Paris, France; CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France
  29. European Space Research and Technology Center, Keplerlaan 1 2201 AZ Noordwijk, The Netherlands
  30. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aichi University of Education, 1 Hirosawa, Igaya-cho, Kariya, Aichi 448-8543, Japan
  31. Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan
  32. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA; Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA
  33. Department of Applied Physics and Electronic Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan
  34. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210, Japan; Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602, Japan
  35. Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602, Japan
  36. Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
  37. Department of Physics, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337, Japan
  38. Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8501, Japan
  39. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
  40. Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-8506, Japan
  41. SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht, The Netherlands; Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
  42. Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
  43. Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
  44. Department of Physics, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551, Japan
  45. Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
  46. Department of Physics, Toho University, 2-2-1 Miyama, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510, Japan
  47. Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-Cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
  48. European Space Astronomy Center, Camino Bajo del Castillo, s/n., 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain
  49. Universities Space Research Association, 7178 Columbia Gateway Drive, Columbia, MD 21046, USA; National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd, Arlington, VA 22230, USA
  50. Department of Electronic Information Systems, Shibaura Institute of Technology, 307 Fukasaku, Minuma-ku, Saitama, Saitama 337-8570, Japan
  51. Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
  52. CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France
  53. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA; Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
  54. Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
  55. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
  56. Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan
  57. Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
  58. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada
  59. Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
  60. Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Kunigami-gun, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan
  61. School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan; Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
  62. Faculty of Liberal Arts, Tohoku Gakuin University, 2-1-1 Tenjinzawa, Izumi-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 981-3193, Japan
  63. Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
  64. Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa-machi, Yamagata, Yamagata 990-8560, Japan
  65. Department of Physics, Nara Women’s University, Kitauoyanishi-machi, Nara, Nara 630-8506, Japan
  66. Department of Teacher Training and School Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake-cho, Nara, Nara 630-8528, Japan
  67. Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-aza-aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan; Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-aza-aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan
  68. Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027, USA
  69. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
  70. Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258, Japan
  71. Astronomical Observatory of Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków, Poland
  72. Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8120, USA
  73. RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan
  74. Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching, Germany; Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210, Japan
  75. Department of Physics, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama, Saitama 338-8570, Japan
  76. NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA; Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA; Department of Physics, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Rome, Italy
  77. Faculty of Education, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan
  78. Faculty of Health Sciences, Nihon Fukushi University , 26-2 Higashi Haemi-cho, Handa, Aichi 475-0012, Japan
  79. MTA-Eötvös University Lendület Hot Universe Research Group, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A, Budapest, 1117, Hungary; Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, Brno, 611 37, Czech Republic; School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
  80. Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601, Japan; Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602, Japan
  81. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515; JP15H00773; JP15H00785; JP15H02070; JP15H02090; JP15H03639; JP15H03641; JP15H03642; JP15H05438; JP15H06896; JP15K05107; JP15K17610; JP15K17657; JP16H00949; JP16H03983; JP16H06342; JP16J02333; JP16K05295; JP16K05296; JP16K05300; JP16K05309; JP16K13787; JP16K17667; JP16K17672; JP16K17673; JP17H02864; JP17K05393; JP21659292; JP23340055; JP23340071; JP23540280; JP24105007; JP24540232; JP25105516; JP25109004; JP25247028; JP25287042; JP25400236; JP25800119; JP26109506; JP26220703; JP26400228; JP26610047; JP26800102; NNX15AC76G; NNX15AE16G; NNX15AK71G; NNX15AU54G; NNX15AW94G; NNG15PP48P; ST/L00075X/1; 340442; ST/J003697/2; PF6-170160
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 70; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6264
Publisher:
Astronomical Society of Japan
Research Org:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Contributing Orgs:
Hitomi Collaboration
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS
OSTI Identifier:
1458444