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Title: Concentrated electrolytes stabilize bismuth–potassium batteries

Abstract

Storing as many as three K-ions per atom, bismuth is a promising anode material for rechargeable potassium-ion batteries that may replace lithium-ion batteries for large-scale electrical energy storage. However, Bi suffers from poor electrochemical cyclability in conventional electrolytes. Here, we demonstrate that a 5 molar (M) ether-based electrolyte, versus the typical 1 M electrolyte, can effectively passivate the bismuth surface due to elevated reduction resistance. This protection allows a bismuth–carbon anode to simultaneously achieve high specific capacity, electrochemical cyclability and Coulombic efficiency, as well as small potential hysteresis and improved rate capability. We show that at a high electrolyte concentration, the bismuth anode demonstrates excellent cyclability over 600 cycles with 85% capacity retention and an average Coulombic efficiency of 99.35% at 200 mA g-1. This “concentrated electrolyte” approach provides unexpected new insights to guide the development of long-cycle-life and high-safety potassium-ion batteries.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. CAS Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou
  2. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1457797
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1505225
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0001160
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Chemical Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Chemical Science Journal Volume: 9 Journal Issue: 29; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-6520
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE

Citation Formats

Zhang, Ruding, Bao, Jingze, Wang, YuHuang, and Sun, Chuan-Fu. Concentrated electrolytes stabilize bismuth–potassium batteries. United Kingdom: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1039/C8SC01848K.
Zhang, Ruding, Bao, Jingze, Wang, YuHuang, & Sun, Chuan-Fu. Concentrated electrolytes stabilize bismuth–potassium batteries. United Kingdom. doi:10.1039/C8SC01848K.
Zhang, Ruding, Bao, Jingze, Wang, YuHuang, and Sun, Chuan-Fu. Mon . "Concentrated electrolytes stabilize bismuth–potassium batteries". United Kingdom. doi:10.1039/C8SC01848K.
@article{osti_1457797,
title = {Concentrated electrolytes stabilize bismuth–potassium batteries},
author = {Zhang, Ruding and Bao, Jingze and Wang, YuHuang and Sun, Chuan-Fu},
abstractNote = {Storing as many as three K-ions per atom, bismuth is a promising anode material for rechargeable potassium-ion batteries that may replace lithium-ion batteries for large-scale electrical energy storage. However, Bi suffers from poor electrochemical cyclability in conventional electrolytes. Here, we demonstrate that a 5 molar (M) ether-based electrolyte, versus the typical 1 M electrolyte, can effectively passivate the bismuth surface due to elevated reduction resistance. This protection allows a bismuth–carbon anode to simultaneously achieve high specific capacity, electrochemical cyclability and Coulombic efficiency, as well as small potential hysteresis and improved rate capability. We show that at a high electrolyte concentration, the bismuth anode demonstrates excellent cyclability over 600 cycles with 85% capacity retention and an average Coulombic efficiency of 99.35% at 200 mA g-1. This “concentrated electrolyte” approach provides unexpected new insights to guide the development of long-cycle-life and high-safety potassium-ion batteries.},
doi = {10.1039/C8SC01848K},
journal = {Chemical Science},
number = 29,
volume = 9,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1039/C8SC01848K

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 16 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Potassium-ion storage potential of Bi compared to that of graphite, Sn, and KTi2(PO4)3. The (x, y, z) coordinates represent the theoretical specific capacity, theoretical volumetric capacity, and average operation potential, respectively. All the specific capacities are calculated based on the mass of the active material, while the volumetricmore » capacities are calculated based on the volume and density of the final potassiated phase (K3Bi, KC8, and KSn) except KTi2(PO4)3 whose value is estimated based on the original phase as its potassiated structure remains unknown.« less

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.