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Title: Observation and Estimation of Evapotranspiration from an Irrigated Green Roof in a Rain-Scarce Environment

Abstract

While the rain-driven evapotranspiration (ET) process has been well-studied in the humid climate, the mixed irrigation and rain-driven ET process is less understood for green roof implementations in dry regions, where empirical observations and model parameterizations are lacking. This paper presents an effort of monitoring and simulating the ET process for an irrigated green roof in a rain-scarce environment. Annual ET rates for three weighing lysimeter test units with non-vegetated, sedums, and grass covers were 2.01, 2.52, and 2.69 mm d-1, respectively. Simulations based on the three Penman–Monteith equation-derived models achieved accuracy within the reported range of previous studies. Compared to the humid climate, the overestimation of high ET rates by existing models is expected to cause a larger error in dry environments, where the enhanced ET process caused by repeated irrigations overlapped with hot, dry conditions often occurs during summer. The studied sedum species did not show significantly lower ET rates than native species, and could not effectively take advantage of the deep moisture storage. Therefore, native species, instead of the shallow-rooted species commonly recommended in humid climates, might be a better choice for green roofs in rain-scarce environments.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering
  3. Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Science Foundation (NSF); Univ. of Utah (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
1457773
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-132939
Journal ID: ISSN 2073-4441; PII: w10030262
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830; IIA-1208732
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Water (Basel)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Water (Basel); Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2073-4441
Publisher:
MDPI
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; stormwater management; green roof; evapotranspiration; sedum; irrigation; rain-scarce environments; weighing lysimeter

Citation Formats

Feng, Youcan, Burian, Steven, and Pardyjak, Eric. Observation and Estimation of Evapotranspiration from an Irrigated Green Roof in a Rain-Scarce Environment. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.3390/w10030262.
Feng, Youcan, Burian, Steven, & Pardyjak, Eric. Observation and Estimation of Evapotranspiration from an Irrigated Green Roof in a Rain-Scarce Environment. United States. doi:10.3390/w10030262.
Feng, Youcan, Burian, Steven, and Pardyjak, Eric. Fri . "Observation and Estimation of Evapotranspiration from an Irrigated Green Roof in a Rain-Scarce Environment". United States. doi:10.3390/w10030262. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1457773.
@article{osti_1457773,
title = {Observation and Estimation of Evapotranspiration from an Irrigated Green Roof in a Rain-Scarce Environment},
author = {Feng, Youcan and Burian, Steven and Pardyjak, Eric},
abstractNote = {While the rain-driven evapotranspiration (ET) process has been well-studied in the humid climate, the mixed irrigation and rain-driven ET process is less understood for green roof implementations in dry regions, where empirical observations and model parameterizations are lacking. This paper presents an effort of monitoring and simulating the ET process for an irrigated green roof in a rain-scarce environment. Annual ET rates for three weighing lysimeter test units with non-vegetated, sedums, and grass covers were 2.01, 2.52, and 2.69 mm d-1, respectively. Simulations based on the three Penman–Monteith equation-derived models achieved accuracy within the reported range of previous studies. Compared to the humid climate, the overestimation of high ET rates by existing models is expected to cause a larger error in dry environments, where the enhanced ET process caused by repeated irrigations overlapped with hot, dry conditions often occurs during summer. The studied sedum species did not show significantly lower ET rates than native species, and could not effectively take advantage of the deep moisture storage. Therefore, native species, instead of the shallow-rooted species commonly recommended in humid climates, might be a better choice for green roofs in rain-scarce environments.},
doi = {10.3390/w10030262},
journal = {Water (Basel)},
number = 3,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}

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Cited by: 2 works
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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Green Roof Stormwater Retention
    journal, January 2005

    • VanWoert, Nicholaus D.; Rowe, D. Bradley; Andresen, Jeffrey A.
    • Journal of Environment Quality, Vol. 34, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.2134/jeq2004.0364

    The future of distributed models: Model calibration and uncertainty prediction
    journal, July 1992


    A Bootstrap-VIP approach for selecting wavelength intervals in spectral imaging applications
    journal, January 2010

    • Gosselin, Ryan; Rodrigue, Denis; Duchesne, Carl
    • Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, Vol. 100, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.chemolab.2009.09.005

    Retention performance of green roofs in three different climate regions
    journal, November 2016


    Economic comparison of white, green, and black flat roofs in the United States
    journal, March 2014


    Transpiration coefficients for three Great Basin shrubs
    journal, November 2001

    • Steinwand, Aaron L.; Harrington, Robert F.; Groeneveld, David P.
    • Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 49, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1006/jare.2001.0794

    Coupling biogeochemical cycles in urban environments: ecosystem services, green solutions, and misconceptions
    journal, February 2011

    • Pataki, Diane E.; Carreiro, Margaret M.; Cherrier, Jennifer
    • Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, Vol. 9, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1890/090220

    Soil Water Characteristic Estimates by Texture and Organic Matter for Hydrologic Solutions
    journal, January 2006

    • Saxton, K. E.; Rawls, W. J.
    • Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 70, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2005.0117

    Establishment and performance of an experimental green roof under extreme climatic conditions
    journal, April 2015


    The Role of Extensive Green Roofs in Sustainable Development
    journal, August 2006


    Easy Leaf Area: Automated Digital Image Analysis for Rapid and Accurate Measurement of Leaf Area
    journal, July 2014

    • Easlon, Hsien Ming; Bloom, Arnold J.
    • Applications in Plant Sciences, Vol. 2, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.3732/apps.1400033

    River flow forecasting through conceptual models part I — A discussion of principles
    journal, April 1970


    Green roof performance towards management of runoff water quantity and quality: A review
    journal, April 2010


    Uncertainty assessment of a stochastic groundwater flow model using GLUE analysis
    journal, November 2008


    The Interpretation of the Variations in Leaf Water Potential and Stomatal Conductance Found in Canopies in the Field
    journal, February 1976

    • Jarvis, P. G.
    • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 273, Issue 927
    • DOI: 10.1098/rstb.1976.0035

    Watering Regime and Green Roof Substrate Design Affect Sedum Plant Growth
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    • VanWoert, Nicholaus D.; Rowe, D. Bradley; Andresen, Jeffrey A.
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    Modeling impacts of roof reflectivity, integrated photovoltaic panels and green roof systems on sensible heat flux into the urban environment
    journal, December 2011


    Green roofs; building energy savings and the potential for retrofit
    journal, October 2010


    Watering our cities: The capacity for Water Sensitive Urban Design to support urban cooling and improve human thermal comfort in the Australian context
    journal, November 2012

    • Coutts, Andrew M.; Tapper, Nigel J.; Beringer, Jason
    • Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment, Vol. 37, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1177/0309133312461032

    Green roofs for a wide brown land: Opportunities and barriers for rooftop greening in Australia
    journal, January 2010

    • Williams, Nicholas S. G.; Rayner, John P.; Raynor, Kirsten J.
    • Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Vol. 9, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.ufug.2010.01.005

    A recommendation on standardized surface resistance for hourly calculation of reference ETo by the FAO56 Penman-Monteith method
    journal, March 2006

    • Allen, Richard G.; Pruitt, William O.; Wright, James L.
    • Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 81, Issue 1-2
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.agwat.2005.03.007

    Sensitivity, uncertainty and time dependence of parameters in a complex land surface model
    journal, February 2008


    Quantifying Evapotranspiration from Urban Green Roofs: A Comparison of Chamber Measurements with Commonly Used Predictive Methods
    journal, August 2014

    • Marasco, Daniel E.; Hunter, Betsy N.; Culligan, Patricia J.
    • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 48, Issue 17
    • DOI: 10.1021/es501699h

    Modeling the impact of land use and climate change on neighborhood-scale evaporation and nighttime cooling: A surface energy balance approach
    journal, November 2011


    Green roof vegetation for North American ecoregions: A literature review
    journal, June 2010


    A modelling study of long term green roof retention performance
    journal, December 2013


    Photosynthesis and water use by two Sedum species in green roof substrate
    journal, November 2014


    From Rain Tanks to Catchments: Use of Low-Impact Development To Address Hydrologic Symptoms of the Urban Stream Syndrome
    journal, September 2015

    • Askarizadeh, Asal; Rippy, Megan A.; Fletcher, Tim D.
    • Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 49, Issue 19
    • DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b01635

    Using Watered Landscapes to Manipulate Urban Heat Island Effects: How Much Water Will It Take to Cool Phoenix?
    journal, December 2009

    • Gober, Patricia; Brazel, Anthony; Quay, Ray
    • Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 76, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1080/01944360903433113

    Parameters influencing the regeneration of a green roof’s retention capacity via evapotranspiration
    journal, April 2015


    Sensitivity and predictive uncertainty of the ACASA model at a spruce forest site
    journal, January 2010


    Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation Method in Uncertainty Analysis of Numerical Eutrophication Models: Take BLOOM as an Example
    journal, January 2013

    • Li, Zhijie; Chen, Qiuwen; Xu, Qiang
    • Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Vol. 2013
    • DOI: 10.1155/2013/701923

    Comparative environmental life cycle assessment of green roofs
    journal, July 2007


    Modelling evapotranspiration in a Scots pine stand under Mediterranean mountain climate using the GLUE methodology
    journal, September 2007


    Investigating soil moisture–climate interactions in a changing climate: A review
    journal, May 2010


    Life cycle implications of urban green infrastructure
    journal, August 2011


    Green roof seasonal variation: comparison of the hydrologic behavior of a thick and a thin extensive system in New York City
    journal, July 2016


    Assessment of green roof thermal behavior: A coupled heat and mass transfer model
    journal, December 2011


    Multiple sources of predictive uncertainty in modeled estimates of net ecosystem CO2 exchange
    journal, December 2009


    Understanding, management and modelling of urban hydrology and its consequences for receiving waters: A state of the art
    journal, January 2013


    Potential of green infrastructure to restore predevelopment water budget of a semi-arid urban catchment
    journal, November 2016


    Experimental measurements and numerical modelling of a green roof
    journal, December 2005


    Theoretical evaluation of thermal and energy performance of tropical green roofs
    journal, May 2011


    Water uptake in green roof microcosms: Effects of plant species and water availability
    journal, June 2008


    Evaluation of common evapotranspiration models based on measurements from two extensive green roofs in New York City
    journal, November 2015


    A review on effectiveness of best management practices in improving hydrology and water quality: Needs and opportunities
    journal, December 2017


    Water-efficient Urban Landscapes: Integrating Different Water Use Categorizations and Plant Types
    journal, February 2012


    Life-cycle cost–benefit analysis of extensive vegetated roof systems
    journal, May 2008


    Simulation of green roof test bed runoff: Simulation of Green Roof Test Bed Runoff
    journal, July 2015

    • Krebs, Gerald; Kuoppamäki, Kirsi; Kokkonen, Teemu
    • Hydrological Processes, Vol. 30, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1002/hyp.10605

    4 Living roofs in 3 locations: Does configuration affect runoff mitigation?
    journal, May 2013


    A review of energy aspects of green roofs
    journal, July 2013


    Moisture content behaviour in extensive green roofs during dry periods: The influence of vegetation and substrate characteristics
    journal, April 2014