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Title: Directed Atom-by-Atom Assembly of Dopants in Silicon

Abstract

The ability to controllably position single atoms inside materials is key for the ultimate fabrication of devices with functionalities governed by atomic-scale properties. Single bismuth dopant atoms in silicon provide an ideal case study in view of proposals for single-dopant quantum bits. However, bismuth is the least soluble pnictogen in silicon, meaning that the dopant atoms tend to migrate out of position during sample growth. Here, we demonstrate epitaxial growth of thin silicon films doped with bismuth. We use atomic-resolution aberration-corrected imaging to view the as-grown dopant distribution and then to controllably position single dopants inside the film. Atomic-scale quantum-mechanical calculations corroborate the experimental findings. Finally, these results indicate that the scanning transmission electron microscope is of particular interest for assembling functional materials atom-by-atom because it offers both real-time monitoring and atom manipulation. Lastly, we envision electron-beam manipulation of atoms inside materials as an achievable route to controllable assembly of structures of individual dopants.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [4];  [3]; ORCiD logo [5];  [1]
  1. Materials Sciences and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 United States, The Institute for Functional Imaging of Materials, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 United States
  2. Materials Sciences and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 United States
  3. Materials Sciences and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 United States, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 United States
  4. Computational Sciences and Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 United States
  5. Materials Sciences and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 United States, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 United States
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division
OSTI Identifier:
1457489
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1458376
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; FG02-09ER46554; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
ACS Nano
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: ACS Nano Journal Volume: 12 Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1936-0851
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; atomic positioning; bismuth in silicon; dopants; quantum computing; quantum materials; scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM); single-atom manipulation

Citation Formats

Hudak, Bethany M., Song, Jiaming, Sims, Hunter, Troparevsky, M. Claudia, Humble, Travis S., Pantelides, Sokrates T., Snijders, Paul C., and Lupini, Andrew R. Directed Atom-by-Atom Assembly of Dopants in Silicon. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1021/acsnano.8b02001.
Hudak, Bethany M., Song, Jiaming, Sims, Hunter, Troparevsky, M. Claudia, Humble, Travis S., Pantelides, Sokrates T., Snijders, Paul C., & Lupini, Andrew R. Directed Atom-by-Atom Assembly of Dopants in Silicon. United States. doi:10.1021/acsnano.8b02001.
Hudak, Bethany M., Song, Jiaming, Sims, Hunter, Troparevsky, M. Claudia, Humble, Travis S., Pantelides, Sokrates T., Snijders, Paul C., and Lupini, Andrew R. Fri . "Directed Atom-by-Atom Assembly of Dopants in Silicon". United States. doi:10.1021/acsnano.8b02001.
@article{osti_1457489,
title = {Directed Atom-by-Atom Assembly of Dopants in Silicon},
author = {Hudak, Bethany M. and Song, Jiaming and Sims, Hunter and Troparevsky, M. Claudia and Humble, Travis S. and Pantelides, Sokrates T. and Snijders, Paul C. and Lupini, Andrew R.},
abstractNote = {The ability to controllably position single atoms inside materials is key for the ultimate fabrication of devices with functionalities governed by atomic-scale properties. Single bismuth dopant atoms in silicon provide an ideal case study in view of proposals for single-dopant quantum bits. However, bismuth is the least soluble pnictogen in silicon, meaning that the dopant atoms tend to migrate out of position during sample growth. Here, we demonstrate epitaxial growth of thin silicon films doped with bismuth. We use atomic-resolution aberration-corrected imaging to view the as-grown dopant distribution and then to controllably position single dopants inside the film. Atomic-scale quantum-mechanical calculations corroborate the experimental findings. Finally, these results indicate that the scanning transmission electron microscope is of particular interest for assembling functional materials atom-by-atom because it offers both real-time monitoring and atom manipulation. Lastly, we envision electron-beam manipulation of atoms inside materials as an achievable route to controllable assembly of structures of individual dopants.},
doi = {10.1021/acsnano.8b02001},
journal = {ACS Nano},
number = 6,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.8b02001

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 19 works
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Works referencing / citing this record:

Atom-by-atom fabrication with electron beams
journal, June 2019

  • Dyck, Ondrej; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Lingerfelt, David B.
  • Nature Reviews Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41578-019-0118-z

Atom-by-atom fabrication with electron beams
journal, June 2019

  • Dyck, Ondrej; Ziatdinov, Maxim; Lingerfelt, David B.
  • Nature Reviews Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41578-019-0118-z