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Title: Absolute Hugoniot measurements for CH foams in the 2–9 Mbar range

Abstract

Absolute Hugoniot measurements for empty plastic foams at ~10% of solid polystyrene density and supporting rad-hydro simulation results are reported. Planar foam slabs, ~400 μm thick and ~500 μm wide, some of which were covered with a 10 μm solid plastic ablator, were directly driven by 4 ns long Nike krypton-fluoride 248 nm wavelength laser pulses that produced strong shock waves in the foam. The shock and mass velocities in our experiments were up to 104 km/s and 84 km/s, respectively, and the shock pressures up to ~9 Mbar. The motion of the shock and ablation fronts was recorded using side-on monochromatic x-ray imaging radiography. Here, the steadiness of the observed shock and ablation fronts within ~1% has been verified. The Hugoniot data inferred from our velocity measurements agree with the predictions of the SESAME and CALEOS equation-of-state models near the highest pressure ~9 Mbar and density compression ratio ~5. In the lower pressure range 2–5 Mbar, a lower shock density compression is observed than that predicted by the models. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Naval Research Lab., Washington, D.C. (United States)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1457361
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1426845
Report Number(s):
SAND-2017-13815J
Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X; 659683; TRN: US1901368
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000; NA0003525
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 25; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Aglitskiy, Y., Velikovich, A. L., Karasik, M., Schmitt, A. J., Serlin, V., Weaver, J. L., Oh, J., Obenschain, S. P., and Cochrane, K. R. Absolute Hugoniot measurements for CH foams in the 2–9 Mbar range. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5020422.
Aglitskiy, Y., Velikovich, A. L., Karasik, M., Schmitt, A. J., Serlin, V., Weaver, J. L., Oh, J., Obenschain, S. P., & Cochrane, K. R. Absolute Hugoniot measurements for CH foams in the 2–9 Mbar range. United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5020422
Aglitskiy, Y., Velikovich, A. L., Karasik, M., Schmitt, A. J., Serlin, V., Weaver, J. L., Oh, J., Obenschain, S. P., and Cochrane, K. R. Mon . "Absolute Hugoniot measurements for CH foams in the 2–9 Mbar range". United States. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5020422. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1457361.
@article{osti_1457361,
title = {Absolute Hugoniot measurements for CH foams in the 2–9 Mbar range},
author = {Aglitskiy, Y. and Velikovich, A. L. and Karasik, M. and Schmitt, A. J. and Serlin, V. and Weaver, J. L. and Oh, J. and Obenschain, S. P. and Cochrane, K. R.},
abstractNote = {Absolute Hugoniot measurements for empty plastic foams at ~10% of solid polystyrene density and supporting rad-hydro simulation results are reported. Planar foam slabs, ~400 μm thick and ~500 μm wide, some of which were covered with a 10 μm solid plastic ablator, were directly driven by 4 ns long Nike krypton-fluoride 248 nm wavelength laser pulses that produced strong shock waves in the foam. The shock and mass velocities in our experiments were up to 104 km/s and 84 km/s, respectively, and the shock pressures up to ~9 Mbar. The motion of the shock and ablation fronts was recorded using side-on monochromatic x-ray imaging radiography. Here, the steadiness of the observed shock and ablation fronts within ~1% has been verified. The Hugoniot data inferred from our velocity measurements agree with the predictions of the SESAME and CALEOS equation-of-state models near the highest pressure ~9 Mbar and density compression ratio ~5. In the lower pressure range 2–5 Mbar, a lower shock density compression is observed than that predicted by the models. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5020422},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 3,
volume = 25,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}

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margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Moore, Alastair S.; Guymer, Thomas M.; Morton, John</span> </li> <li> Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, Vol. 159</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2015.02.020" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1016/j.jqsrt.2015.02.020<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00193-012-0424-5" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Shock propagation in regular wetted arrays of fibers<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2012-12-18">December 2012</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Elbaz, D.; Canaud, B.; Ballereau, P.</span> </li> <li> Shock Waves, Vol. 23, Issue 1</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00193-012-0424-5" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1007/s00193-012-0424-5<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> </div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All References</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; 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margin-top:0px;">Works referencing / citing this record:</p> <div class="list"> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5044609" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Mitigating laser-imprint effects in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions with an above-critical-density foam layer<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2018-08-01">August 2018</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#5C7B2D;"> Hu, S. X.; Theobald, W.; Radha, P. B.</span> </li> <li> Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 25, Issue 8</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5044609" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1063/1.5044609<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> </div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All Cited By</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; text-transform:capitalize;"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-filter="type" data-pattern="journal"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> journal<small class="text-muted"> (1)</small></a></li> </ul> <div style="margin-top:2em;"> <form class="pure-form small text-muted citation-search"> <label for="citation-search-text" class="sr-only">Search</label> <input class="search form-control pure-input-1" id="citation-search-text" placeholder="Search" style="margin-bottom:10px;" /> <fieldset> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="name" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="citation-search-sort-name"><label for="citation-search-sort-name" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by title</label></div> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="date" data-order="desc" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="citation-search-sort-date"><label for="citation-search-sort-date" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by date</label></div> </fieldset> <div class="text-left" style="margin-left:1em;"> <a href="" class="filter-clear clearfix" title="Clear filter / sort" style="font-weight:normal; float:none;">[ × clear filter / sort ]</a> </div> </form> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section id="biblio-related" class="tab-content tab-content-sec " data-tab="biblio"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-9 order-sm-9"> <section id="biblio-similar" class="tab-content tab-content-sec active" data-tab="related"> <div class="padding"> <p class="lead text-muted" style="font-size: 18px; margin-top:0px;">Similar Records in DOE PAGES and OSTI.GOV collections:</p> <aside> <ul class="item-list" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ItemList" style="padding-left:0; list-style-type: none;"> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="1" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1682524-high-precision-shock-equation-state-measurements-metallic-fluid-carbon-between-mbar" itemprop="url">High-precision shock equation of state measurements for metallic fluid carbon between 15 and 20 Mbar</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Millot, Marius</span> ; <span class="author">Sterne, Philip A.</span> ; <span class="author">Eggert, Jon H.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physics of Plasmas</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Diamond is an efficient ablator material to convert the energy of high-power giant lasers into ablation pressure with applications for High-Energy-Density (HED) science, planetary science, and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Unfortunately, current theoretical equation of state models cannot reproduce all the observed experimental data in the multi-megabar regime particularly relevant for HED and ICF research. New experimental data on the behavior of carbon at extreme pressures and temperatures are, therefore, essential to improve our predictive capability to design and analyze dynamic compression experiments for HED or ICF research and build improved equation of<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> state models in the future. In this paper, we report high-precision laser-driven shock compression measurements on diamond single crystals at the Omega Laser Facility. Using ultrafast Doppler optical Velocimetry Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) to track the leading shock front and a quartz plate as an in situ reference, we obtain relative pressure-density shock equation-of-state measurements between 15 and 20 Mbar with an impedance-matching procedure. We also report shock-and-release measurements in a spherical geometry at the NIF. The new data provide tight constraints on the compressibility of warm dense carbon along the Hugoniot of full density diamond, allowing us to discriminate between existing theoretical equation-of-state models. We find that both LLNL LEOS 9061 and LANL Sesame 7835 models capture well the shock compressibility in the explored range. LANL Sesame 7835 also reproduces well the observed shock-and-release behavior of diamond near 10–20 Mbar.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0007304" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1682524" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0007304</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="2" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1238619-temperature-measurements-shocked-silica-aerogel-foam" itemprop="url">Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Falk, K.</span> ; <span class="author">McCoy, C. A.</span> ; <span class="author">Fryer, C. L.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO2) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1–15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s corresponding<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> to shock pressures of 0.3–2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. As a result, simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 9<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.90.033107" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1238619" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.90.033107</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/pages/servlets/purl/1238619" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1238619" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="3" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/pages/biblio/1355154-hugoniot-release-measurements-diamond-shocked-up-mbar-hugoniot-release-measurements-diamond-shocked-up-mbar" itemprop="url">Hugoniot and release measurements in diamond shocked up to 26 Mbar [Hugoniot and release measurements in diamond shocked up to 25 Mbar]</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Gregor, M. C.</span> ; <span class="author">Fratanduono, D. E.</span> ; <span class="author">McCoy, C. A.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physical Review B</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">The equation of state of carbon at extreme pressures is of interest to studies of planetary ice giants and white dwarfs and to inertial con nement fusion (ICF) because diamond is used as an ablator material at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Knowledge of both the high-pressure shock and release responses of diamond are needed to accurately model an ICF implosion and design ignition targets. This article presents Hugoniot and release data for both single-crystal diamond and the high-density carbon (HDC), comprised of nanometer-scale grains, used as a NIF ablator. Experiments were performed at the Omega Laser Facility where diamond<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> was shock-compressed to multimegabar pressures and then released into reference materials with known Hugoniots (quartz, polystyrene, silica aerogel, and liquid deuterium). Impedance matching between diamond and the standards provided the data to constrain diamond release models. Hugoniot data were obtained by impedance matching with a quartz standard and results indicate that the HDC, which is ultrananocrystalline and ~4% less dense, has a sti er Hugoniot as compared to single-crystal diamond. Accuracy of the HDC data were improved using a non-steady waves correction [D. E. Fratanduono et al., J. Appl. Phys. 116, 033517 (2014)] to determine shock velocity pro les in the opaque HDC samples.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 4<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.95.144114" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1355154" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.95.144114</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/pages/servlets/purl/1355154" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1355154" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="4" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/20779251-hugoniot-data-plastic-foams-obtained-from-laser-driven-shocks" itemprop="url">Hugoniot data of plastic foams obtained from laser-driven shocks</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Dezulian, R</span> ; <span class="author">Canova, F</span> ; <span class="author">Barbanotti, S</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physical Review. E, Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">In this paper we present Hugoniot data for plastic foams obtained with laser-driven shocks. Relative equation-of-state data for foams were obtained using Al as a reference material. The diagnostics consisted in the detection of shock breakout from double layer Al/foam targets. The foams [poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) with density 130>{rho}>60 mg/cm{sup 3}] were produced at the Institute of Laser Engineering of Osaka University. The experiment was performed using the Prague PALS iodine laser working at 0.44 {mu}m wavelength and irradiances up to a few 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. Pressures as high as 3.6 Mbar (previously unreached for such low-density materials) where generated in<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> the foams. Samples with four different values of initial density were used, in order to explore a wider region of the phase diagram. Shock acceleration when the shock crosses the Al/foam interface was also measured.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PHYSREVE.73.0" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="20779251" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="" >https://doi.org/10.1103/PHYSREVE.73.0</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="6" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/990007-properties-shocked-polymers-mbar-experiments-multi-scale-simulations" itemprop="url">Properties of shocked polymers : Mbar experiments on Z and multi-scale simulations.</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Conference</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"></span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Significant progress has been made over the last few years in understanding properties of matter subject to strong shocks and other extreme conditions. High-accuracy multi-Mbar experiments and first-principles theoretical studies together provide detailed insights into the physics and chemistry of high energy-density matter. While comprehensive advances have been made for pure elements like deuterium, helium, and carbon, progress has been slower for equally important, albeit more challenging, materials like molecular crystals, polymers, and foams. Hydrocarbon based polymer foams are common materials and in particular they are used in designing shock- and inertial confinement fusion experiments. Depending on their initial density,<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> foams shock to relatively higher pressure and temperature compared to shocked dense polymers/plastics. As foams and polymers are shocked, they exhibit both structural and chemical transitions. We will present experimental and theoretical results for shocked polymers in the Mbar regime. By shock impact of magnetically launched flyer plates on poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) foams, we create multi-Mbar pressures in a dense plasma mixture of hydrogen, carbon, at temperatures of several eV. Concurrently with executing experiments, we analyze the system by multi-scale simulations, from density functional theory to continuum magneto-hydrodynamics simulations. In particular, density functional theory (DFT) molecular dynamics (MD) and classical MD simulations of the principal shock Hugoniot will be presented in detail for two hydrocarbon polymers: polyethylene (PE) and poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP).</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> </ul> </aside> </div> </section> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a class="tab-nav disabled" data-tab="related" style="color: #636c72 !important; opacity: 1;"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> Similar Records</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </section> </div></div> </div> </div> </section> <footer class="" style="background-color:#f9f9f9; /* padding-top: 0.5rem; */"> <div class="footer-minor"> <div class="container"> <hr class="footer-separator" /> <div class="text-center" style="margin-top:1.25rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list" id="footer-org-menu"> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://energy.gov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-us-doe-min" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="https://www.energy.gov/science/office-science" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-office-of-science-min" alt="Office of Science" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item"> <a href="/"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-osti-min" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" /> </a> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="text-center small" style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:2.0rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/disclaim" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-institution"></span> Website Policies <span class="hidden-xs">/ Important Links</span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/pages/contact" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-comments-o"></span> Contact Us</a></li> <li class="d-block d-md-none"></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-facebook" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://twitter.com/OSTIgov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-twitter" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-youtube-play" style=""></span></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </footer> <link href="/pages/css/pages.fonts.210604.1157.css" rel="stylesheet"> <script src="/pages/js/pages.210604.1157.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/pages.biblio.210604.1157.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/pages/js/lity.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script async type="text/javascript" src="/pages/js/Universal-Federated-Analytics-Min.js?agency=DOE" id="_fed_an_ua_tag"></script><noscript></noscript> </body> <!-- DOE PAGES v.210604.1157 --> </html>