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Title: Fast charging of lithium-ion batteries at all temperatures

Abstract

Fast charging is a key enabler of mainstream adoption of electric vehicles (EVs). None of today’s EVs can withstand fast charging in cold or even cool temperatures due to the risk of lithium plating. Efforts to enable fast charging are hampered by the trade-off nature of a lithium-ion battery: Improving low-temperature fast charging capability usually comes with sacrificing cell durability. Here, we present a controllable cell structure to break this trade-off and enable lithium plating-free (LPF) fast charging. Further, the LPF cell gives rise to a unified charging practice independent of ambient temperature, offering a platform for the development of battery materials without temperature restrictions. We demonstrate a 9.5 Ah 170 Wh/kg LPF cell that can be charged to 80% state of charge in 15 min even at −50 °C (beyond cell operation limit). Further, the LPF cell sustains 4,500 cycles of 3.5-C charging in 0 °C with <20% capacity loss, which is a 90× boost of life compared with a baseline conventional cell, and equivalent to >12 y and >280,000 miles of EV lifetime under this extreme usage condition, i.e., 3.5-C or 15-min fast charging at freezing temperatures.

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
EC Power LLC, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1457095
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1540303
Grant/Contract Number:  
EE0006425
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Journal Volume: 115 Journal Issue: 28; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE

Citation Formats

Yang, Xiao-Guang, Zhang, Guangsheng, Ge, Shanhai, and Wang, Chao-Yang. Fast charging of lithium-ion batteries at all temperatures. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1807115115.
Yang, Xiao-Guang, Zhang, Guangsheng, Ge, Shanhai, & Wang, Chao-Yang. Fast charging of lithium-ion batteries at all temperatures. United States. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1807115115
Yang, Xiao-Guang, Zhang, Guangsheng, Ge, Shanhai, and Wang, Chao-Yang. Mon . "Fast charging of lithium-ion batteries at all temperatures". United States. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1807115115.
@article{osti_1457095,
title = {Fast charging of lithium-ion batteries at all temperatures},
author = {Yang, Xiao-Guang and Zhang, Guangsheng and Ge, Shanhai and Wang, Chao-Yang},
abstractNote = {Fast charging is a key enabler of mainstream adoption of electric vehicles (EVs). None of today’s EVs can withstand fast charging in cold or even cool temperatures due to the risk of lithium plating. Efforts to enable fast charging are hampered by the trade-off nature of a lithium-ion battery: Improving low-temperature fast charging capability usually comes with sacrificing cell durability. Here, we present a controllable cell structure to break this trade-off and enable lithium plating-free (LPF) fast charging. Further, the LPF cell gives rise to a unified charging practice independent of ambient temperature, offering a platform for the development of battery materials without temperature restrictions. We demonstrate a 9.5 Ah 170 Wh/kg LPF cell that can be charged to 80% state of charge in 15 min even at −50 °C (beyond cell operation limit). Further, the LPF cell sustains 4,500 cycles of 3.5-C charging in 0 °C with <20% capacity loss, which is a 90× boost of life compared with a baseline conventional cell, and equivalent to >12 y and >280,000 miles of EV lifetime under this extreme usage condition, i.e., 3.5-C or 15-min fast charging at freezing temperatures.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1807115115},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 28,
volume = 115,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1807115115

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 13 works
Citation information provided by
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