skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Precise Time Delays from Strongly Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae with Chromatically Microlensed Images

Abstract

Time delays between the multiple images of strongly gravitationally lensed Type Ia supernovae (glSNe Ia) have the potential to deliver precise cosmological constraints, but the effects of microlensing on time delay extraction have not been studied in detail. Here we quantify the effect of microlensing on the glSN Ia yield of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the effect of microlensing on the precision and accuracy of time delays that can be extracted from LSST glSNe Ia. Microlensing has a negligible effect on the LSST glSN Ia yield, but it can be increased by a factor of ~2 over previous predictions to 930 systems using a novel photometric identification technique based on spectral template fitting. Crucially, the microlensing of glSNe Ia is achromatic until three rest-frame weeks after the explosion, making the early-time color curves microlensing-insensitive time delay indicators. By fitting simulated flux and color observations of microlensed glSNe Ia with their underlying, unlensed spectral templates, we forecast the distribution of absolute time delay error due to microlensing for LSST, which is unbiased at the sub-percent level and peaked at 1% for color curve observations in the achromatic phase, while for light-curve observations it is comparable to state-of-the-art massmore » modeling uncertainties (4%). About 70% of LSST glSN Ia images should be discovered during the achromatic phase, indicating that microlensing time delay uncertainties can be minimized if prompt multicolor follow-up observations are obtained. Lastly, accounting for microlensing, the 1-2 day time delay on the recently discovered glSN Ia iPTF16geu can be measured to 40% precision, limiting its cosmological utility.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Cosmology Center
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Nuclear Science Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  3. Univ. of Portsmouth (United Kingdom). Inst. of Cosmology and Gravitation
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21)
OSTI Identifier:
1457001
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 855; Journal Issue: 1; Related Information: © 2018. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gravitational lensing: micro; gravitational lensing: strong; Supernovae: general

Citation Formats

Goldstein, Daniel A., Nugent, Peter E., Kasen, Daniel N., and Collett, Thomas E. Precise Time Delays from Strongly Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae with Chromatically Microlensed Images. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaa975.
Goldstein, Daniel A., Nugent, Peter E., Kasen, Daniel N., & Collett, Thomas E. Precise Time Delays from Strongly Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae with Chromatically Microlensed Images. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaa975.
Goldstein, Daniel A., Nugent, Peter E., Kasen, Daniel N., and Collett, Thomas E. Thu . "Precise Time Delays from Strongly Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae with Chromatically Microlensed Images". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaa975. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1457001.
@article{osti_1457001,
title = {Precise Time Delays from Strongly Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae with Chromatically Microlensed Images},
author = {Goldstein, Daniel A. and Nugent, Peter E. and Kasen, Daniel N. and Collett, Thomas E.},
abstractNote = {Time delays between the multiple images of strongly gravitationally lensed Type Ia supernovae (glSNe Ia) have the potential to deliver precise cosmological constraints, but the effects of microlensing on time delay extraction have not been studied in detail. Here we quantify the effect of microlensing on the glSN Ia yield of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the effect of microlensing on the precision and accuracy of time delays that can be extracted from LSST glSNe Ia. Microlensing has a negligible effect on the LSST glSN Ia yield, but it can be increased by a factor of ~2 over previous predictions to 930 systems using a novel photometric identification technique based on spectral template fitting. Crucially, the microlensing of glSNe Ia is achromatic until three rest-frame weeks after the explosion, making the early-time color curves microlensing-insensitive time delay indicators. By fitting simulated flux and color observations of microlensed glSNe Ia with their underlying, unlensed spectral templates, we forecast the distribution of absolute time delay error due to microlensing for LSST, which is unbiased at the sub-percent level and peaked at 1% for color curve observations in the achromatic phase, while for light-curve observations it is comparable to state-of-the-art mass modeling uncertainties (4%). About 70% of LSST glSN Ia images should be discovered during the achromatic phase, indicating that microlensing time delay uncertainties can be minimized if prompt multicolor follow-up observations are obtained. Lastly, accounting for microlensing, the 1-2 day time delay on the recently discovered glSN Ia iPTF16geu can be measured to 40% precision, limiting its cosmological utility.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/aaa975},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 855,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 18 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Source-plane magnification patterns of nine of 78,184 the lens galaxy star fields considered in this analysis. Each panel consists of 1,0002 pixels and has a side length of 10 times the Einstein radius of a 1M deflector projected onto the source plane. The detailed parameters of each mapmore » are given in Table 1. The size of the exterior shell (4 × 104 km s−1) of the SN Ia model W7 at 20 (50) days after explosion is plotted as the interior (exterior) purple circle at the center of each map. Negative (positive) ∆m indicates magnification (demagnification) over the theoretical average.« less

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Astropy: A community Python package for astronomy
journal, September 2013


Redshift Evolution of the Galaxy Velocity Dispersion Function
journal, July 2011


H0LiCOW – V. New COSMOGRAIL time delays of HE 0435−1223: H 0 to 3.8 per cent precision from strong lensing in a flat ΛCDM model
journal, November 2016

  • Bonvin, V.; Courbin, F.; Suyu, S. H.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 465, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw3006

The Cosmic Lens All-Sky Survey: statistical strong lensing, cosmological parameters, and global properties of galaxy populations
journal, December 2003


Flux variations of QSO 0957 + 561 A, B and image splitting by stars near the light path
journal, December 1979


Internal and Collective Properties of Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
journal, April 2007

  • Choi, Yun‐Young; Park, Changbom; Vogeley, Michael S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 658, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/511060

Cosmological constraints from the double source plane lens SDSSJ0946+1006
journal, July 2014

  • Collett, Thomas E.; Auger, Matthew W.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 443, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1190

Observational selection biases in time-delay strong lensing and their impact on cosmography
journal, July 2016

  • Collett, Thomas E.; Cunnington, Steven D.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 462, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1856

Reconstructing the lensing mass in the Universe from photometric catalogue data
journal, April 2013

  • Collett, Thomas E.; Marshall, Philip J.; Auger, Matthew W.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 432, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt504

Microlensing of Lensed Supernovae
journal, December 2006

  • Dobler, Gregory; Keeton, Charles R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 653, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/508769

Galaxy number counts and implications for strong lensing: Galaxy number counts and strong lensing
journal, October 2010


HOW TO FIND GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
journal, December 2016


iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova
journal, April 2017


SALT2: using distant supernovae to improve the use of type Ia supernovae as distance indicators
journal, February 2007


ChainConsumer
journal, August 2016


External Shear in Quadruply Imaged Lens Systems
journal, June 2003

  • Holder, Gilbert P.; Schechter, Paul L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 589, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/374688

K ‐Corrections and Spectral Templates of Type Ia Supernovae
journal, July 2007

  • Hsiao, E. Y.; Conley, A.; Howell, D. A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 663, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/518232

Minuit - a system for function minimization and analysis of the parameter errors and correlations
journal, December 1975


Secondary Maximum in the Near‐Infrared Light Curves of Type Ia Supernovae
journal, October 2006

  • Kasen, Daniel
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 649, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/506588

Time‐dependent Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer Calculations for Three‐dimensional Supernova Spectra, Light Curves, and Polarization
journal, November 2006

  • Kasen, Daniel; Thomas, R. C.; Nugent, P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 651, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/506190

On the Origin of the Type Ia Supernova Width‐Luminosity Relation
journal, February 2007

  • Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, S. E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 656, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/510375

Shear and Ellipticity in Gravitational Lenses
journal, June 1997

  • Keeton, C. R.; Kochanek, C. S.; Seljak, U.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 482, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/304172

The implications of lenses for galaxy structure
journal, May 1991

  • Kochanek, Christopher S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 373
  • DOI: 10.1086/170057

The Structure and Dynamics of Massive Early-Type Galaxies: on Homology, Isothermality, and Isotropy Inside one Effective Radius
journal, September 2009


Strong lens time Delay Challenge. ii. Results of tdc1
journal, February 2015


Lensing time delays and cosmological complementarity
journal, December 2011


Observational Clues to the Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae
journal, August 2014


Quantifying Environmental and Line-of-sight Effects in Models of Strong Gravitational Lens Systems
journal, February 2017


Interpreting the Strongly Lensed Supernova iPTF16geu: Time Delay Predictions, Microlensing, and Lensing Rates
journal, January 2017


Accreting white dwarf models of Type I supernovae. III - Carbon deflagration supernovae
journal, November 1984

  • Nomoto, K.; Thielemann, F. -K.; Yokoi, K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 286
  • DOI: 10.1086/162639

The Mass Distribution of SDSS J1004$+$4112 Revisited
journal, August 2010

  • Oguri, Masamune
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Vol. 62, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/pasj/62.4.1017

The Sloan Digital sky Survey Quasar lens Search. iii. Constraints on dark Energy from the Third data Release Quasar lens Catalog
journal, January 2008


Gravitational lens time delays for distant supernovae: breaking the degeneracy between radial mass profiles and the Hubble constant
journal, February 2003


Gravitationally lensed quasars and supernovae in future wide-field optical imaging surveys: Lensed quasars and supernovae
journal, April 2010


Measurements of Ω and Λ from 42 High‐Redshift Supernovae
journal, June 1999

  • Perlmutter, S.; Aldering, G.; Goldhaber, G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 517, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/307221

Planck 2015 results : XIII. Cosmological parameters
journal, September 2016


Detection of the Gravitational Lens Magnifying a Type Ia Supernova
journal, April 2014


Observational Evidence from Supernovae for an Accelerating Universe and a Cosmological Constant
journal, September 1998

  • Riess, Adam G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Challis, Peter
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 116, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1086/300499

A 2.4% Determination of the Local Value of the Hubble Constant
journal, July 2016

  • Riess, Adam G.; Macri, Lucas M.; Hoffmann, Samantha L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 826, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/826/1/56

H0LiCOW – III. Quantifying the effect of mass along the line of sight to the gravitational lens HE 0435−1223 through weighted galaxy counts★
journal, February 2017

  • Rusu, Cristian E.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Sluse, Dominique
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 467, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx285

The Luminosity Function and Stellar Evolution.
journal, January 1955

  • Salpeter, Edwin E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 121
  • DOI: 10.1086/145971

Type Ia supernova bolometric light curves and ejected mass estimates from the Nearby Supernova Factory
journal, March 2014

  • Scalzo, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 440, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu350

The Velocity Dispersion Function of Early‐Type Galaxies
journal, September 2003

  • Sheth, Ravi K.; Bernardi, Mariangela; Schechter, Paul L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 594, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/376794

A strategy for finding gravitationally lensed distant supernovae
journal, December 2000


Two Accurate Time-Delay Distances from Strong Lensing: Implications for Cosmology
journal, March 2013


H0LiCOW – I. H0 Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring: program overview
journal, February 2017

  • Suyu, S. H.; Bonvin, V.; Courbin, F.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 468, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx483

Dissecting the Gravitational lens B1608+656. ii. Precision Measurements of the Hubble Constant, Spatial Curvature, and the dark Energy Equation of State
journal, February 2010


Microlensing makes lensed quasar time delays significantly time variable
journal, September 2017

  • Tie, S. S.; Kochanek, C. S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 473, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx2348

Time delay cosmography
journal, July 2016


COSMOGRAIL: the COSmological MOnitoring of GRAvItational Lenses: VII. Time delays and the Hubble constant from WFI J2033–4723
journal, July 2008


Gravitational lensing: numerical simulations with a hierarchical tree code
journal, September 1999


Spectropolarimetry of Supernovae
journal, September 2008


Probing the structure of lensing galaxies with quadruple lenses: the effect of 'external' shear
journal, October 1997

  • Witt, H. J.; Mao, S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 291, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/291.1.211

H0LiCOW – IV. Lens mass model of HE 0435−1223 and blind measurement of its time-delay distance for cosmology
journal, November 2016

  • Wong, Kenneth C.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Auger, Matthew W.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 465, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw3077

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Technical Summary
journal, September 2000

  • York, Donald G.; Adelman, J.; Anderson, Jr., John E.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 120, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1086/301513