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Title: Spectra of Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory

Most Type I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) reported to date have been identified by their high peak luminosities and spectra lacking obvious signs of hydrogen. Here, we demonstrate that these events can be distinguished from normal-luminosity SNe (including Type Ic events) solely from their spectra over a wide range of light-curve phases. We use this distinction to select 19 SLSNe-I and four possible SLSNe-I from the Palomar Transient Factory archive (including seven previously published objects). We present 127 new spectra of these objects and combine these with 39 previously published spectra, and we use these to discuss the average spectral properties of SLSNe-I at different spectral phases. We find that Mn ii most probably contributes to the ultraviolet spectral features after maximum light, and we give a detailed study of the O II features that often characterize the early-time optical spectra of SLSNe-I. We discuss the velocity distribution of O II, finding that for some SLSNe-I this can be confined to a narrow range compared to relatively large systematic velocity shifts. Mg II and Fe II favor higher velocities than O II and C II, and we briefly discuss how this may constrain power-source models. We tentatively group objects by howmore » well they match either SN 2011ke or PTF12dam and discuss the possibility that physically distinct events may have been previously grouped together under the SLSN-I label.« less
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [2] ; ORCiD logo [3] ; ORCiD logo [4] ; ORCiD logo [5] ; ORCiD logo [6] ; ORCiD logo [7] ; ORCiD logo [8] ;  [9] ; ORCiD logo [10] ;  [11] ; ORCiD logo [12] ; ORCiD logo [13] ; ORCiD logo [14] ;  [14] ; ORCiD logo [14] ; ORCiD logo [15] ; ORCiD logo [16] ;  [17] ; ORCiD logo [18] more »;  [19] ; ORCiD logo [20] ;  [7] « less
  1. San Diego State Univ., San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Mount Laguna Observatory; Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Inst. for Advanced Study and Kavli Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI)
  2. European Southern Observatory (ESO), Garching (Germany); Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics
  3. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics
  4. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics; Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark). The Niels Bohr Inst. and Dark Cosmology Centre
  5. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Oskar Klein Centre and Dept. of Astronomy; California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Cahill Center for Astrophysics
  6. Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark). The Niels Bohr Inst. and Dark Cosmology Centre; Liverpool John Moores Univ., Liverpool (United Kingdom). Astrophysics Research Inst.
  7. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics and Faculty of Physics
  8. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Cahill Center for Astrophysics and Infrared Processing and Analysis Center
  9. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy
  10. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States). Astrophysics Science Division; Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Joint Space-Science Inst.
  11. Swinburne Univ. of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC (Australia). Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing
  12. Univ. College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  13. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy, Miller Senior Fellow and Miller Inst. for Basic Research in Science
  14. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Cahill Center for Astrophysics
  15. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Tuscon, AZ (United States)
  16. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  17. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics
  18. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy; Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Astronomy
  19. Univ. of Geneva, Versoix (Switzerland). Astronomical Observatory of the Univ. of Geneva
  20. Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231; 615929; AST-1211916; AST-1545949; FT130101219; 725161
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 855; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21); National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); W.M. Keck Foundation; Inst. of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands, La Laguna (Spain); Google, Mountain View, CA (United States); European Union (EU); European Research Council (ERC); Christopher R. Redlich Fund; TABASGO Foundation; National Science Foundation (NSF); Australian Research Council (ARC); Israel Science Foundation (ISF); US-Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; supernovae
OSTI Identifier:
1457000