skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Illuminating gravitational waves: A concordant picture of photons from a neutron star merger

Abstract

Merging neutron stars offer an excellent laboratory for simultaneously studying strong-field gravity and matter in extreme environments. We establish the physical association of an electromagnetic counterpart (EM170817) with gravitational waves (GW170817) detected from merging neutron stars. By synthesizing a panchromatic data set, we demonstrate that merging neutron stars are a long-sought production site forging heavy elements by r-process nucleosynthesis. The weak gamma rays seen in EM170817 are dissimilar to classical short gamma-ray bursts with ultrarelativistic jets. Instead, we suggest that breakout of a wide-angle, mildly relativistic cocoon engulfing the jet explains the low-luminosity gamma rays, the high-luminosity ultraviolet-optical-infrared, and the delayed radio and x-ray emission. We posit that all neutron star mergers may lead to a wide-angle cocoon breakout, sometimes accompanied by a successful jet and sometimes by a choked jet.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [4];  [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [9]; ORCiD logo [10]; ORCiD logo [11]; ORCiD logo [12] more »; ORCiD logo [13]; ORCiD logo [14]; ORCiD logo [15]; ORCiD logo [16]; ORCiD logo [17]; ORCiD logo [18]; ORCiD logo [19]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [20]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [3];  [21]; ORCiD logo [22]; ORCiD logo [23];  [1]; ORCiD logo [24]; ORCiD logo [25]; ORCiD logo [26]; ORCiD logo [27];  [28]; ORCiD logo [29]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [30];  [31]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [9];  [8]; ORCiD logo [32];  [33]; ORCiD logo [34];  [25]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [35]; ORCiD logo [1];  [36]; ORCiD logo [37]; ORCiD logo [38]; ORCiD logo [35]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [39];  [39]; ORCiD logo [20];  [40]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [41]; ORCiD logo [42]; ORCiD logo [43]; ORCiD logo [35]; ORCiD logo [39]; ORCiD logo [42]; ORCiD logo [22]; ORCiD logo [39]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [44];  [45]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [43] « less
  1. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy
  2. Tel Aviv Univ., Ramat Aviv (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy
  3. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States). Astroparticle Physics Lab.; Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Joint Space-Science Inst.
  4. Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics
  5. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Oskar Klein Centre, Dept. of Physics
  6. Simons Foundation, New York, NY (United States). Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Inst.
  7. Liverpool John Moores Univ., Liverpool (United Kingdom). Astrophysics Research Inst.
  8. National Central Univ., Taoyuan City (Taiwan). Graduate Inst. of Astronomy
  9. Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics
  10. Univ. of Sydney, NSW (Australia). Sydney Inst. for Astronomy, School of Physics; ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D), (Australia)
  11. Indian Inst. of Astrophysics, Bangalore (India)
  12. Indian Inst. of Science Education and Research, Pashan, Pune (India)
  13. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Astronomy and Space Science, NSW (Australia). Australia Telescope National Facility
  14. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  15. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Columbia Astrophysics Lab.
  16. South African Astronomical (SAAO), Cape Town (South Africa)
  17. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy
  18. Indian Inst. of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Physics
  19. Inter-Univ. Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune (India)
  20. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  21. George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Physics
  22. Liverpool John Moores Univ., Liverpool (United Kingdom). Astrophysics Research Inst.
  23. Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  24. Univ. of Sydney, NSW (Australia). Sydney Inst. for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, and Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO); Australia Telescope National Facility, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Astronomy and Space Science, Epping, NSW (Australia)
  25. Univ. College London, Dorking (United Kingdom). Mullard Space Science Lab.
  26. Univ. of Leicester (United Kingdom). Leicester Inst. for Space and Earth Observation, Dept. of Physics & Astronomy
  27. Space Telescope Science Inst., Baltimore, MD (United States)
  28. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States)
  29. Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Univ. of Portsmouth (United Kingdom). Inst. of Cosmology and Gravitation
  30. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Infrared Processing and Analysis Center
  31. Radboud Univ., Nijmegen (Netherlands). Inst of Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics
  32. Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics
  33. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy, and Dept. of Physics
  34. Gemini Observatory, Casilla, La Serena (Chile)
  35. Univ. of Sydney, NSW (Australia). Sydney Inst. for Astronomy, School of Physics, and Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO)
  36. Liverpool John Moores Univ., Liverpool (United Kingdom). Astrophysics Research Inst.; Max-Planck Inst. for Astrophysics, Garching (Germany)
  37. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Adler Planetarium, Chicago, IL (United States)
  38. Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Astrophysics, Dept. of Physics
  39. Radboud Univ., Nijmegen (Netherlands). Inst. of Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics
  40. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics & Astrophysics
  41. San Diego State Univ., San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy; Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Kavli Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The Univ. of Tokyo Inst. for Advanced Study
  42. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Oskar Klein Centre, Dept. of Astronomy
  43. Univ. of California, Merced, CA (United States)
  44. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Division of Physics, Math and Astronomy; California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Infrared Processing and Analysis Center
  45. Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21); National Science Foundation (SFN); Australian Research Council (ARC)
OSTI Identifier:
1456988
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; 1277/13; SC0012160; FT150100099; PF7-180162; DGE1144469; MOST104-2923-M-008-004-MY5; MOST106-2112-M-008-007
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 358; Journal Issue: 6370; Journal ID: ISSN 0036-8075
Publisher:
AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

Kasliwal, M. M., Nakar, E., Singer, L. P., Kaplan, D. L., Cook, D. O., Van Sistine, A., Lau, R. M., Fremling, C., Gottlieb, O., Jencson, J. E., Adams, S. M., Feindt, U., Hotokezaka, K., Ghosh, S., Perley, D. A., Yu, P. -C., Piran, T., Allison, J. R., Anupama, G. C., Balasubramanian, A., Bannister, K. W., Bally, J., Barnes, J., Barway, S., Bellm, E., Bhalerao, V., Bhattacharya, D., Blagorodnova, N., Bloom, J. S., Brady, P. R., Cannella, C., Chatterjee, D., Cenko, S. B., Cobb, B. E., Copperwheat, C., Corsi, A., De, K., Dobie, D., Emery, S. W. K., Evans, P. A., Fox, O. D., Frail, D. A., Frohmaier, C., Goobar, A., Hallinan, G., Harrison, F., Helou, G., Hinderer, T., Ho, A. Y. Q., Horesh, A., Ip, W. -H., Itoh, R., Kasen, D., Kim, H., Kuin, N. P. M., Kupfer, T., Lynch, C., Madsen, K., Mazzali, P. A., Miller, A. A., Mooley, K., Murphy, T., Ngeow, C. -C., Nichols, D., Nissanke, S., Nugent, P., Ofek, E. O., Qi, H., Quimby, R. M., Rosswog, S., Rusu, F., Sadler, E. M., Schmidt, P., Sollerman, J., Steele, I., Williamson, A. R., Xu, Y., Yan, L., Yatsu, Y., Zhang, C., and Zhao, W. Illuminating gravitational waves: A concordant picture of photons from a neutron star merger. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1126/science.aap9455.
Kasliwal, M. M., Nakar, E., Singer, L. P., Kaplan, D. L., Cook, D. O., Van Sistine, A., Lau, R. M., Fremling, C., Gottlieb, O., Jencson, J. E., Adams, S. M., Feindt, U., Hotokezaka, K., Ghosh, S., Perley, D. A., Yu, P. -C., Piran, T., Allison, J. R., Anupama, G. C., Balasubramanian, A., Bannister, K. W., Bally, J., Barnes, J., Barway, S., Bellm, E., Bhalerao, V., Bhattacharya, D., Blagorodnova, N., Bloom, J. S., Brady, P. R., Cannella, C., Chatterjee, D., Cenko, S. B., Cobb, B. E., Copperwheat, C., Corsi, A., De, K., Dobie, D., Emery, S. W. K., Evans, P. A., Fox, O. D., Frail, D. A., Frohmaier, C., Goobar, A., Hallinan, G., Harrison, F., Helou, G., Hinderer, T., Ho, A. Y. Q., Horesh, A., Ip, W. -H., Itoh, R., Kasen, D., Kim, H., Kuin, N. P. M., Kupfer, T., Lynch, C., Madsen, K., Mazzali, P. A., Miller, A. A., Mooley, K., Murphy, T., Ngeow, C. -C., Nichols, D., Nissanke, S., Nugent, P., Ofek, E. O., Qi, H., Quimby, R. M., Rosswog, S., Rusu, F., Sadler, E. M., Schmidt, P., Sollerman, J., Steele, I., Williamson, A. R., Xu, Y., Yan, L., Yatsu, Y., Zhang, C., & Zhao, W. Illuminating gravitational waves: A concordant picture of photons from a neutron star merger. United States. doi:10.1126/science.aap9455.
Kasliwal, M. M., Nakar, E., Singer, L. P., Kaplan, D. L., Cook, D. O., Van Sistine, A., Lau, R. M., Fremling, C., Gottlieb, O., Jencson, J. E., Adams, S. M., Feindt, U., Hotokezaka, K., Ghosh, S., Perley, D. A., Yu, P. -C., Piran, T., Allison, J. R., Anupama, G. C., Balasubramanian, A., Bannister, K. W., Bally, J., Barnes, J., Barway, S., Bellm, E., Bhalerao, V., Bhattacharya, D., Blagorodnova, N., Bloom, J. S., Brady, P. R., Cannella, C., Chatterjee, D., Cenko, S. B., Cobb, B. E., Copperwheat, C., Corsi, A., De, K., Dobie, D., Emery, S. W. K., Evans, P. A., Fox, O. D., Frail, D. A., Frohmaier, C., Goobar, A., Hallinan, G., Harrison, F., Helou, G., Hinderer, T., Ho, A. Y. Q., Horesh, A., Ip, W. -H., Itoh, R., Kasen, D., Kim, H., Kuin, N. P. M., Kupfer, T., Lynch, C., Madsen, K., Mazzali, P. A., Miller, A. A., Mooley, K., Murphy, T., Ngeow, C. -C., Nichols, D., Nissanke, S., Nugent, P., Ofek, E. O., Qi, H., Quimby, R. M., Rosswog, S., Rusu, F., Sadler, E. M., Schmidt, P., Sollerman, J., Steele, I., Williamson, A. R., Xu, Y., Yan, L., Yatsu, Y., Zhang, C., and Zhao, W. Mon . "Illuminating gravitational waves: A concordant picture of photons from a neutron star merger". United States. doi:10.1126/science.aap9455. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1456988.
@article{osti_1456988,
title = {Illuminating gravitational waves: A concordant picture of photons from a neutron star merger},
author = {Kasliwal, M. M. and Nakar, E. and Singer, L. P. and Kaplan, D. L. and Cook, D. O. and Van Sistine, A. and Lau, R. M. and Fremling, C. and Gottlieb, O. and Jencson, J. E. and Adams, S. M. and Feindt, U. and Hotokezaka, K. and Ghosh, S. and Perley, D. A. and Yu, P. -C. and Piran, T. and Allison, J. R. and Anupama, G. C. and Balasubramanian, A. and Bannister, K. W. and Bally, J. and Barnes, J. and Barway, S. and Bellm, E. and Bhalerao, V. and Bhattacharya, D. and Blagorodnova, N. and Bloom, J. S. and Brady, P. R. and Cannella, C. and Chatterjee, D. and Cenko, S. B. and Cobb, B. E. and Copperwheat, C. and Corsi, A. and De, K. and Dobie, D. and Emery, S. W. K. and Evans, P. A. and Fox, O. D. and Frail, D. A. and Frohmaier, C. and Goobar, A. and Hallinan, G. and Harrison, F. and Helou, G. and Hinderer, T. and Ho, A. Y. Q. and Horesh, A. and Ip, W. -H. and Itoh, R. and Kasen, D. and Kim, H. and Kuin, N. P. M. and Kupfer, T. and Lynch, C. and Madsen, K. and Mazzali, P. A. and Miller, A. A. and Mooley, K. and Murphy, T. and Ngeow, C. -C. and Nichols, D. and Nissanke, S. and Nugent, P. and Ofek, E. O. and Qi, H. and Quimby, R. M. and Rosswog, S. and Rusu, F. and Sadler, E. M. and Schmidt, P. and Sollerman, J. and Steele, I. and Williamson, A. R. and Xu, Y. and Yan, L. and Yatsu, Y. and Zhang, C. and Zhao, W.},
abstractNote = {Merging neutron stars offer an excellent laboratory for simultaneously studying strong-field gravity and matter in extreme environments. We establish the physical association of an electromagnetic counterpart (EM170817) with gravitational waves (GW170817) detected from merging neutron stars. By synthesizing a panchromatic data set, we demonstrate that merging neutron stars are a long-sought production site forging heavy elements by r-process nucleosynthesis. The weak gamma rays seen in EM170817 are dissimilar to classical short gamma-ray bursts with ultrarelativistic jets. Instead, we suggest that breakout of a wide-angle, mildly relativistic cocoon engulfing the jet explains the low-luminosity gamma rays, the high-luminosity ultraviolet-optical-infrared, and the delayed radio and x-ray emission. We posit that all neutron star mergers may lead to a wide-angle cocoon breakout, sometimes accompanied by a successful jet and sometimes by a choked jet.},
doi = {10.1126/science.aap9455},
journal = {Science},
number = 6370,
volume = 358,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 137 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Short-hard gamma-ray bursts
journal, April 2007


The HIPASS catalogue - I. Data presentation
journal, June 2004


Nuclear Activity in Nearby Galaxies
journal, September 2008


A Comprehensive Study of Binary Compact Objects as Gravitational Wave Sources: Evolutionary Channels, Rates, and Physical Properties
journal, June 2002

  • Belczynski, Krzysztof; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Bulik, Tomasz
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 572, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/340304

The Discovery of the Electromagnetic Counterpart of GW170817: Kilonova AT 2017gfo/DLT17ck
journal, October 2017

  • Valenti, Stefano; Sand, David, J.; Yang, Sheng
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 848, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa8edf

Weighing Galaxy Disks with the Baryonic Tully–Fisher Relation
journal, March 2015


VEGAS: A VST Early-type GAlaxy Survey: I. Presentation, wide-field surface photometry, and substructures in NGC 4472⋆
journal, August 2015


Electromagnetic Signatures of Neutron Star Mergers in the Advanced LIGO Era
journal, October 2016


The IPAC Image Subtraction and Discovery Pipeline for the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory
journal, December 2016

  • Masci, Frank J.; Laher, Russ R.; Rebbapragada, Umaa D.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 129, Issue 971
  • DOI: 10.1088/1538-3873/129/971/014002

Light curves of the neutron star merger GW170817/SSS17a: Implications for r-process nucleosynthesis
journal, October 2017


THE DETECTION RATE OF EARLY UV EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE: A DEDICATED GALEX /PTF SURVEY AND CALIBRATED THEORETICAL ESTIMATES
journal, March 2016


Swift and NuSTAR observations of GW170817: Detection of a blue kilonova
journal, October 2017


The unblinking eye on the sky
journal, March 2017


Magnetically Driven Winds from Differentially Rotating Neutron Stars and X-Ray Afterglows of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts
journal, March 2014

  • Siegel, Daniel M.; Ciolfi, Riccardo; Rezzolla, Luciano
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 785, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/785/1/L6

LATE-TIME NEAR-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2005df
journal, June 2015

  • Diamond, Tiara R.; Hoeflich, Peter; Gerardy, Christopher L.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 806, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/806/1/107

Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. X. A Self-Consistent Radiometric All-Sky Network of Absolutely Calibrated Stellar Spectra
journal, April 1999

  • Cohen, Martin; Walker, Russell G.; Carter, Brian
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 117, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1086/300813

PRODUCTION OF ALL THE r -PROCESS NUCLIDES IN THE DYNAMICAL EJECTA OF NEUTRON STAR MERGERS
journal, June 2014


The physics of the intergalactic medium
journal, October 2009


The Keck Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer
journal, April 1995

  • Oke, J. B.; Cohen, J. G.; Carr, M.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 107
  • DOI: 10.1086/133562

Lower Limits on Lorentz Factors in Gamma‐Ray Bursts
journal, July 2001

  • Lithwick, Yoram; Sari, Re’em
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 555, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/321455

A radio counterpart to a neutron star merger
journal, October 2017


[CLC][ITAL]r[/ITAL][/CLC]-Process in Neutron Star Mergers
journal, November 1999

  • Freiburghaus, C.; Rosswog, S.; Thielemann, F. -K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 525, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/312343

Final Results from the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project to Measure the Hubble Constant
journal, May 2001

  • Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Gibson, Brad K.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 553, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/320638

Dynamical mass ejection from binary neutron star mergers
journal, May 2016

  • Radice, David; Galeazzi, Filippo; Lippuner, Jonas
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 460, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1227

Upper Limits on the Rates of Binary Neutron star and Neutron Star–Black hole Mergers from Advanced Ligo’S First Observing run
journal, November 2016


The relationship between infrared, optical, and ultraviolet extinction
journal, October 1989

  • Cardelli, Jason A.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Mathis, John S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 345
  • DOI: 10.1086/167900

Automating Discovery and Classification of Transients and Variable Stars in the Synoptic Survey Era
journal, November 2012

  • Bloom, J. S.; Richards, J. W.; Nugent, P. E.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 124, Issue 921
  • DOI: 10.1086/668468

Neutrino-driven winds from neutron star merger remnants
journal, August 2014

  • Perego, A.; Rosswog, S.; Cabezon, R. M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 443, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1352

Production of the entire range of r -process nuclides by black hole accretion disc outflows from neutron star mergers
journal, August 2016

  • Wu, Meng-Ru; Fernández, Rodrigo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 463, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw2156

Correcting for the Effects of Interstellar Extinction
journal, January 1999

  • Fitzpatrick, Edward L.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 111, Issue 755
  • DOI: 10.1086/316293

Relativistic outflows from remnants of compact object mergers and their viability for short gamma-ray bursts
journal, May 2005


Dust-Corrected star Formation Rates of Galaxies. ii. Combinations of Ultraviolet and Infrared Tracers
journal, October 2011

  • Hao, Cai-Na; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Johnson, Benjamin D.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 741, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/124

Optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2011dh – The first 100 days
journal, February 2014


Radio Emission from Normal Galaxies
journal, September 1992


The Metamorphosis of SN 1998bw
journal, July 2001

  • Patat, Ferdinando; Cappellaro, Enrico; Danziger, John
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 555, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/321526

RELATIVISTIC SHOCK BREAKOUTS—A VARIETY OF GAMMA-RAY FLARES: FROM LOW-LUMINOSITY GAMMA-RAY BURSTS TO TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
journal, February 2012


Radioactive decay products in neutron star merger ejecta: heating efficiency and γ-ray emission
journal, March 2016

  • Hotokezaka, K.; Wanajo, S.; Tanaka, M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 459, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw404

The Extragalactic Distance Database
journal, June 2009


The Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale. XXIV. The Calibration of Tully‐Fisher Relations and the Value of the Hubble Constant
journal, February 2000

  • Sakai, Shoko; Mould, Jeremy R.; Hughes, Shaun M. G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 529, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/308305

The Local Rate and the Progenitor Lifetimes of Short‐Hard Gamma‐Ray Bursts: Synthesis and Predictions for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational‐Wave Observatory
journal, October 2006

  • Nakar, Ehud; Gal‐Yam, Avishay; Fox, Derek B.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 650, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/505855

Transient Events from Neutron Star Mergers
journal, November 1998

  • Li, Li-Xin; Paczyński, Bohdan
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 507, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/311680

An Ordinary Short Gamma-Ray Burst with Extraordinary Implications: Fermi -GBM Detection of GRB 170817A
journal, October 2017


On Discovering Electromagnetic Emission from Neutron star Mergers: the Early Years of two Gravitational wave Detectors
journal, June 2014


Gaia Data Release 1 : Summary of the astrometric, photometric, and survey properties
journal, November 2016


Grb 080503: Implications of a Naked Short Gamma-Ray Burst Dominated by Extended Emission
journal, April 2009


Short-lived 244Pu points to compact binary mergers as sites for heavy r-process nucleosynthesis
journal, December 2015

  • Hotokezaka, Kenta; Piran, Tsvi; Paul, Michael
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 11, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys3574

The 6dF Galaxy Survey: final redshift release (DR3) and southern large-scale structures
journal, October 2009


NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF THE TYPE IIn SN 2010jl: EVIDENCE FOR HIGH VELOCITY EJECTA
journal, February 2015

  • Borish, H. Jacob; Huang, Chenliang; Chevalier, Roger A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 801, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/801/1/7

A ‘kilonova’ associated with the short-duration γ-ray burst GRB 130603B
journal, August 2013

  • Tanvir, N. R.; Levan, A. J.; Fruchter, A. S.
  • Nature, Vol. 500, Issue 7464
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature12505

Measuring Reddening with Sloan Digital sky Survey Stellar Spectra and Recalibrating sfd
journal, August 2011


The X-ray counterpart to the gravitational-wave event GW170817
journal, October 2017


Stellar population synthesis at the resolution of 2003
journal, October 2003


Spectral and variability constraints on compact sources
journal, December 1983

  • Guilbert, P. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Rees, M. J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 205, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/205.3.593

A Method of Correcting Near‐Infrared Spectra for Telluric Absorption1
journal, March 2003

  • Vacca, William D.; Cushing, Michael C.; Rayner, John T.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 115, Issue 805
  • DOI: 10.1086/346193

The dynamic ejecta of compact object mergers and eccentric collisions
journal, June 2013

  • Rosswog, Stephan
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 371, Issue 1992
  • DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2012.0272

The Arecibo Legacy fast alfa Survey: the α.40 h i Source Catalog, its Characteristics and Their Impact on the Derivation of the h i mass Function
journal, October 2011


The Gemini–North Multi‐Object Spectrograph: Performance in Imaging, Long‐Slit, and Multi‐Object Spectroscopic Modes
journal, May 2004

  • Hook, I. M.; Jørgensen, Inger; Allington‐Smith, J. R.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 116, Issue 819
  • DOI: 10.1086/383624

Gravitational Radiation from Point Masses in a Keplerian Orbit
journal, July 1963


Red or blue? A potential kilonova imprint of the delay until black hole formation following a neutron star merger
journal, May 2014

  • Metzger, Brian D.; Fernández, Rodrigo
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 441, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu802

OPACITIES AND SPECTRA OF THE r -PROCESS EJECTA FROM NEUTRON STAR MERGERS
journal, August 2013


The spectra of short gamma-ray bursts
journal, July 2004


WFPC2 Stellar Photometry with HSTphot
journal, October 2000

  • Dolphin, Andrew E.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 112, Issue 776
  • DOI: 10.1086/316630

The Eleventh and Twelfth data Releases of the Sloan Digital sky Survey: Final data from Sdss-Iii
journal, July 2015

  • Alam, Shadab; Albareti, Franco D.; Prieto, Carlos Allende
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 219, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/219/1/12

Dynamical mass ejection from binary neutron star mergers: Radiation-hydrodynamics study in general relativity
journal, March 2015


emcee : The MCMC Hammer
journal, March 2013

  • Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Hogg, David W.; Lang, Dustin
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 125, Issue 925
  • DOI: 10.1086/670067

Post-Maximum Near-Infrared Spectra of sn 2014j: a Search for Interaction Signatures
journal, April 2016


The Palomar Transient Factory: System Overview, Performance, and First Results
journal, December 2009

  • Law, Nicholas M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Dekany, Richard G.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 121, Issue 886
  • DOI: 10.1086/648598

The First two Years of Electromagnetic Follow-Up with Advanced ligo and Virgo
journal, October 2014


Nucleosynthesis, neutrino bursts and γ-rays from coalescing neutron stars
journal, July 1989

  • Eichler, David; Livio, Mario; Piran, Tsvi
  • Nature, Vol. 340, Issue 6229
  • DOI: 10.1038/340126a0

Prompt gamma rays and X rays from supernovae
journal, May 1968

  • Colgate, Stirling A.
  • Canadian Journal of Physics, Vol. 46, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1139/p68-274

450 d of Type II SN 2013ej in optical and near-infrared
journal, June 2016

  • Yuan, Fang; Jerkstrand, A.; Valenti, S.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 461, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1419

Line Strengths of Early-Type Galaxies
journal, May 2008

  • Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Pellegrini, Paulo S.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 135, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/135/6/2424

On the astrophysical robustness of the neutron star merger r-process: Robust r-process in neutron star mergers
journal, October 2012


Swope Supernova Survey 2017a (SSS17a), the optical counterpart to a gravitational wave source
journal, October 2017


Detectability of compact binary merger macronovae
journal, April 2017


Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A
journal, October 2017


The rate of neutron star binary mergers in the universe - Minimal predictions for gravity wave detectors
journal, October 1991

  • Phinney, E. S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 380
  • DOI: 10.1086/186163

Radiative Transfer Simulations of Neutron star Merger Ejecta
journal, September 2013


The Evolution of the Distribution of Star Formation Rates in Galaxies
journal, May 1997

  • Cowie, Lennox L.; Hu, Esther M.; Songaila, Antoinette
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 481, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/310648

MASTER Optical Detection of the First LIGO/Virgo Neutron Star Binary Merger GW170817
journal, November 2017

  • Lipunov, V. M.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kornilov, V. G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 850, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa92c0

GW170817: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Neutron Star Inspiral
journal, October 2017


The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) mission
journal, March 1984

  • Neugebauer, G.; Habing, H. J.; van Duinen, R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 278
  • DOI: 10.1086/184209

The ATLAS3D project - XIII. Mass and morphology of H i in early-type galaxies as a function of environment: The ATLAS3D project - XIII. Neutral hydrogen
journal, April 2012


PLUTO: A Numerical Code for Computational Astrophysics
journal, May 2007

  • Mignone, A.; Bodo, G.; Massaglia, S.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 170, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/513316

Galaxy Strategy for Ligo-Virgo Gravitational wave Counterpart Searches
journal, March 2016


The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)
journal, February 2006

  • Skrutskie, M. F.; Cutri, R. M.; Stiening, R.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 131, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/498708

The Macronova in GRB 050709 and the GRB-macronova connection
journal, September 2016

  • Jin, Zhi-Ping; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Li, Xiang
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12898

CALIBRATING EXTINCTION-FREE STAR FORMATION RATE DIAGNOSTICS WITH 33 GHz FREE-FREE EMISSION IN NGC 6946
journal, August 2011


Neutron-Capture Elements in the Early Galaxy
journal, September 2008


Infrared Emission from Kilonovae: The Case of the Nearby Short Hard Burst GRB 160821B
journal, July 2017

  • Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Korobkin, Oleg; Lau, Ryan M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 843, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa799d

Real-time Recovery Efficiencies and Performance of the Palomar Transient Factory’s Transient Discovery Pipeline
journal, May 2017

  • Frohmaier, C.; Sullivan, M.; Nugent, P. E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 230, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aa6d70

A Decade of Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Burst Broadband Afterglows: Energetics, Circumburst Densities, and jet Opening Angles
journal, December 2015


Effect of a high Opacity on the Light Curves of Radioactively Powered Transients from Compact Object Mergers
journal, August 2013


Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts
journal, August 2014


Going the Distance: Mapping host Galaxies of ligo and Virgo Sources in Three Dimensions Using Local Cosmography and Targeted Follow-Up
journal, September 2016


The Propagation of Relativistic jets in External Media
journal, October 2011


The Galaxy Evolution Explorer : A Space Ultraviolet Survey Mission
journal, January 2005

  • Martin, D. Christopher; Fanson, James; Schiminovich, David
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 619, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/426387

Binary Compact Object Coalescence Rates: the role of Elliptical Galaxies
journal, May 2010


Mass ejection from the merger of binary neutron stars
journal, January 2013


Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory: Realtime Image Subtraction Pipeline
journal, September 2016

  • Cao, Yi; Nugent, Peter E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 128, Issue 969
  • DOI: 10.1088/1538-3873/128/969/114502

Identifying Elusive Electromagnetic Counterparts to Gravitational wave Mergers: an End-To-End Simulation
journal, April 2013

  • Nissanke, Samaya; Kasliwal, Mansi; Georgieva, Alexandra
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 767, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/767/2/124

The rate, luminosity function and time delay of non-Collapsar short GRBs
journal, March 2015

  • Wanderman, David; Piran, Tsvi
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 448, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv123

Radioactivity and Thermalization in the Ejecta of Compact Object Mergers and Their Impact on Kilonova Light Curves
journal, September 2016


A possible macronova in the late afterglow of the long–short burst GRB 060614
journal, June 2015

  • Yang, Bin; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Li, Xiang
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 6, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8323

HyperLEDA. III. The catalogue of extragalactic distances
journal, October 2014


Systematics of Dynamical mass Ejection, Nucleosynthesis, and Radioactively Powered Electromagnetic Signals from Neutron-Star Mergers
journal, July 2013


Neutron-powered precursors of kilonovae
journal, November 2014

  • Metzger, Brian D.; Bauswein, Andreas; Goriely, Stephane
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 446, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2225

The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (Wise): Mission Description and Initial On-Orbit Performance
journal, November 2010


Black-hole-neutron-star collisions
journal, September 1974

  • Lattimer, J. M.; Schramm, D. N.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 192
  • DOI: 10.1086/181612

Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
journal, November 2008


Origin of the heavy elements in binary neutron-star mergers from a gravitational-wave event
journal, October 2017

  • Kasen, Daniel; Metzger, Brian; Barnes, Jennifer
  • Nature, Vol. 551, Issue 7678
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature24453

Impact of ejecta morphology and composition on the electromagnetic signatures of neutron star mergers
journal, April 2018

  • Wollaeger, Ryan T.; Korobkin, Oleg; Fontes, Christopher J.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 478, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1018

The cocoon emission – an electromagnetic counterpart to gravitational waves from neutron star mergers
journal, September 2017

  • Gottlieb, Ore; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 473, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx2357

Off-axis Prompt X-Ray Transients from the Cocoon of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts
journal, October 2017

  • Lazzati, Davide; López-Cámara, Diego; Cantiello, Matteo
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 848, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aa8f3d

Observational evidence for mass ejection accompanying short gamma-ray bursts
journal, August 2017

  • Moharana, Reetanjali; Piran, Tsvi
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Vol. 472, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slx131

Short GRBs: Opening Angles, Local Neutron Star Merger Rate, and Off-axis Events for GRB/GW Association
journal, April 2018


Numerically calibrated model for propagation of a relativistic unmagnetized jet in dense media
journal, March 2018

  • Harrison, Richard; Gottlieb, Ore; Nakar, Ehud
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 477, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty760

A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source
journal, October 2017

  • Smartt, S. J.; Chen, T. -W.; Jerkstrand, A.
  • Nature, Vol. 551, Issue 7678
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature24303

Follow Up of GW170817 and Its Electromagnetic Counterpart by Australian-Led Observing Programmes
journal, January 2017

  • Andreoni, I.; Ackley, K.; Cooke, J.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, Vol. 34
  • DOI: 10.1017/pasa.2017.65

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The optical afterglow of the short gamma-ray burst associated with GW170817
    journal, July 2018


    Observable features of GW170817 kilonova afterglow
    journal, June 2019

    • Kathirgamaraju, Adithan; Giannios, Dimitrios; Beniamini, Paz
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 487, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1564