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Title: PTF13efv—An Outburst 500 Days Prior to the SNHunt 275 Explosion and its Radiative Efficiency

The progenitors of some supernovae (SNe) exhibit outbursts with super-Eddington luminosities prior to their final explosions. This behavior is common among SNe IIn, but the driving mechanisms of these precursors are not yet well-understood. SNHunt 275 was announced as a possible new SN during 2015 May. In this paper, we report on pre-explosion observations of the location of this event by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and report the detection of a precursor about 500 days prior to the 2015 May activity (PTF 13efv). The observed velocities in the 2015 transient and its 2013 precursor absorption spectra are low (1000–2000 km s -1), so it is not clear yet if the recent activity indeed marks the final disruption of the progenitor. Regardless of the nature of this event, we use the PTF photometric and spectral observations, as well as Swift-UVOT observations, to constrain the efficiency of the radiated energy relative to the total kinetic energy of the precursor. Finally, we find that, using an order-of-magnitude estimate and under the assumption of spherical symmetry, the ratio of the radiated energy to the kinetic energy is in the range of 4 × 10 -2 to 3.4 × 10 3.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [3] ;  [4] ;  [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [4] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [5] ; ORCiD logo [4] ; ORCiD logo [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ; ORCiD logo [8] ; ORCiD logo [9] ;  [10] ;  [1] ;  [11]
  1. Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics. Helen Kimmel Center for Planetary Science
  2. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States). Astrophysics Science Division
  3. Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics; Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences
  4. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics
  5. Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy
  6. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Cosmology Center; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy
  7. Observatories of the Carnegie Inst. for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States)
  8. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Astronomy. The Oskar Klein Centre
  9. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Astronomy
  10. Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark). Dark Cosmology Centre. Niels Bohr Inst.
  11. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Spitzer Science Center
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231; AST-1211916; 307260; 615929
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 824; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE; National Science Foundation (NSF); Israel Science Foundation (ISF); European Research Council (ERC); Royal Society (United Kingdom)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; stars; mass-loss; supernovae; PTF13efv; SNHunt275
OSTI Identifier:
1456947

Ofek, E. O., Cenko, S. B., Shaviv, N. J., Duggan, G., Strotjohann, N. -L., Rubin, A., Kulkarni, S. R., Gal-Yam, A., Sullivan, M., Cao, Y., Nugent, P. E., Kasliwal, M. M., Sollerman, J., Fransson, C., Filippenko, A. V., Perley, D. A., Yaron, O., and Laher, R.. PTF13efv—An Outburst 500 Days Prior to the SNHunt 275 Explosion and its Radiative Efficiency. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/824/1/6.
Ofek, E. O., Cenko, S. B., Shaviv, N. J., Duggan, G., Strotjohann, N. -L., Rubin, A., Kulkarni, S. R., Gal-Yam, A., Sullivan, M., Cao, Y., Nugent, P. E., Kasliwal, M. M., Sollerman, J., Fransson, C., Filippenko, A. V., Perley, D. A., Yaron, O., & Laher, R.. PTF13efv—An Outburst 500 Days Prior to the SNHunt 275 Explosion and its Radiative Efficiency. United States. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/824/1/6.
Ofek, E. O., Cenko, S. B., Shaviv, N. J., Duggan, G., Strotjohann, N. -L., Rubin, A., Kulkarni, S. R., Gal-Yam, A., Sullivan, M., Cao, Y., Nugent, P. E., Kasliwal, M. M., Sollerman, J., Fransson, C., Filippenko, A. V., Perley, D. A., Yaron, O., and Laher, R.. 2016. "PTF13efv—An Outburst 500 Days Prior to the SNHunt 275 Explosion and its Radiative Efficiency". United States. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/824/1/6. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1456947.
@article{osti_1456947,
title = {PTF13efv—An Outburst 500 Days Prior to the SNHunt 275 Explosion and its Radiative Efficiency},
author = {Ofek, E. O. and Cenko, S. B. and Shaviv, N. J. and Duggan, G. and Strotjohann, N. -L. and Rubin, A. and Kulkarni, S. R. and Gal-Yam, A. and Sullivan, M. and Cao, Y. and Nugent, P. E. and Kasliwal, M. M. and Sollerman, J. and Fransson, C. and Filippenko, A. V. and Perley, D. A. and Yaron, O. and Laher, R.},
abstractNote = {The progenitors of some supernovae (SNe) exhibit outbursts with super-Eddington luminosities prior to their final explosions. This behavior is common among SNe IIn, but the driving mechanisms of these precursors are not yet well-understood. SNHunt 275 was announced as a possible new SN during 2015 May. In this paper, we report on pre-explosion observations of the location of this event by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and report the detection of a precursor about 500 days prior to the 2015 May activity (PTF 13efv). The observed velocities in the 2015 transient and its 2013 precursor absorption spectra are low (1000–2000 km s-1), so it is not clear yet if the recent activity indeed marks the final disruption of the progenitor. Regardless of the nature of this event, we use the PTF photometric and spectral observations, as well as Swift-UVOT observations, to constrain the efficiency of the radiated energy relative to the total kinetic energy of the precursor. Finally, we find that, using an order-of-magnitude estimate and under the assumption of spherical symmetry, the ratio of the radiated energy to the kinetic energy is in the range of 4 × 10-2 to 3.4 × 103.},
doi = {10.3847/0004-637X/824/1/6},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 824,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {6}
}