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Title: Evolution of Metastable Defects and Its Effect on the Electronic Properties of MoS 2 Films

Abstract

Here, we report on structural and electronic properties of defects in chemical vapor-deposited monolayer and few-layer MoS 2 films. Scanning tunneling microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to obtain high resolution images and quantitative measurements of the local density of states, work function and nature of defects in MoS 2 films. We track the evolution of defects that are formed under heating and electron beam irradiation. We observe formation of metastable domains with different work function values after annealing the material in ultra-high vacuum to moderate temperatures. We attribute these metastable values of the work function to evolution of crystal defects forming during the annealing. The experiments show that sulfur vacancies formed after exposure to elevated temperatures diffuse, coalesce, and migrate bringing the system from a metastable to equilibrium ground state. The process could be thermally or e-beam activated with estimated energy barrier for sulfur vacancy migration of 0.6 eV in single unit cell MoS 2. Even at equilibrium conditions, the work function and local density of states values are strongly affected near grain boundaries and edges. The results provide initial estimates of the thermal budgets available for reliable fabrication of MoS 2-based integrated electronicsmore » and indicate the importance of defect control and layer passivation.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [4];  [4]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovak Republic)
  2. Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  3. Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  4. Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  5. Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Institute for Physics of Microstructure RAS, Novgorod (Russia)
  6. Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Univ. of Salerno, Fisciano (SA) (Italy)
  7. Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Univ. of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)
  8. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Center for Complex Materials from First Principles (CCM); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1456903
Report Number(s):
BNL-205792-2018-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY

Citation Formats

Precner, Marian, Polakovic, T., Qiao, Qiao, Trainer, D. J., Putilov, A. V., Di Giorgio, C., Cone, I., Zhu, Y., Xi, X. X., Iavarone, M., and Karapetrov, G. Evolution of Metastable Defects and Its Effect on the Electronic Properties of MoS2 Films. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-24913-y.
Precner, Marian, Polakovic, T., Qiao, Qiao, Trainer, D. J., Putilov, A. V., Di Giorgio, C., Cone, I., Zhu, Y., Xi, X. X., Iavarone, M., & Karapetrov, G. Evolution of Metastable Defects and Its Effect on the Electronic Properties of MoS2 Films. United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-24913-y.
Precner, Marian, Polakovic, T., Qiao, Qiao, Trainer, D. J., Putilov, A. V., Di Giorgio, C., Cone, I., Zhu, Y., Xi, X. X., Iavarone, M., and Karapetrov, G. Mon . "Evolution of Metastable Defects and Its Effect on the Electronic Properties of MoS2 Films". United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-24913-y. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1456903.
@article{osti_1456903,
title = {Evolution of Metastable Defects and Its Effect on the Electronic Properties of MoS2 Films},
author = {Precner, Marian and Polakovic, T. and Qiao, Qiao and Trainer, D. J. and Putilov, A. V. and Di Giorgio, C. and Cone, I. and Zhu, Y. and Xi, X. X. and Iavarone, M. and Karapetrov, G.},
abstractNote = {Here, we report on structural and electronic properties of defects in chemical vapor-deposited monolayer and few-layer MoS2 films. Scanning tunneling microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to obtain high resolution images and quantitative measurements of the local density of states, work function and nature of defects in MoS2 films. We track the evolution of defects that are formed under heating and electron beam irradiation. We observe formation of metastable domains with different work function values after annealing the material in ultra-high vacuum to moderate temperatures. We attribute these metastable values of the work function to evolution of crystal defects forming during the annealing. The experiments show that sulfur vacancies formed after exposure to elevated temperatures diffuse, coalesce, and migrate bringing the system from a metastable to equilibrium ground state. The process could be thermally or e-beam activated with estimated energy barrier for sulfur vacancy migration of 0.6 eV in single unit cell MoS2. Even at equilibrium conditions, the work function and local density of states values are strongly affected near grain boundaries and edges. The results provide initial estimates of the thermal budgets available for reliable fabrication of MoS2-based integrated electronics and indicate the importance of defect control and layer passivation.},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-018-24913-y},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = 1,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}

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