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Title: Ultracompliant Heterogeneous Copper–Tin Nanowire Arrays Making a Supersolder

Abstract

Due to the substantial increase in power density, thermal interface resistance that can constitute more than 50% of the total thermal resistance has generally become a bottleneck for thermal management in electronics. However, conventional thermal interface materials (TIMs) such as solder, epoxy, gel, and grease cannot fulfill the requirements of electronics for high-power and long-term operation. Here, we demonstrate a high-performance TIM consisting of a heterogeneous copper-tin nanowire array, which we term 'supersolder' to emulate the role of conventional solders in bonding various surfaces. The supersolder is ultracompliant with a shear modulus 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than traditional solders and can reduce the thermal resistance by two times as compared with the state-of-the-art TIMs. This supersolder also exhibits excellent long-term reliability with >1200 thermal cycles over a wide temperature range. By resolving this critical thermal bottleneck, the supersolder enables electronic systems, ranging from microelectronics and portable electronics to massive data centers, to operate at lower temperatures with higher power density and reliability.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA); USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1456864
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5400-71577
Journal ID: ISSN 1530-6984
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nano Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 18; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 1530-6984
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; long-term reliability; nanowire array; ultracompliant; ultralow thermal resistance

Citation Formats

Gong, Wei, Li, Pengfei, Zhang, Yunheng, Feng, Xuhui, Major, Joshua, DeVoto, Douglas, Paret, Paul, King, Charles, Narumanchi, Sreekant, and Shen, Sheng. Ultracompliant Heterogeneous Copper–Tin Nanowire Arrays Making a Supersolder. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b00692.
Gong, Wei, Li, Pengfei, Zhang, Yunheng, Feng, Xuhui, Major, Joshua, DeVoto, Douglas, Paret, Paul, King, Charles, Narumanchi, Sreekant, & Shen, Sheng. Ultracompliant Heterogeneous Copper–Tin Nanowire Arrays Making a Supersolder. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b00692
Gong, Wei, Li, Pengfei, Zhang, Yunheng, Feng, Xuhui, Major, Joshua, DeVoto, Douglas, Paret, Paul, King, Charles, Narumanchi, Sreekant, and Shen, Sheng. Wed . "Ultracompliant Heterogeneous Copper–Tin Nanowire Arrays Making a Supersolder". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b00692. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1456864.
@article{osti_1456864,
title = {Ultracompliant Heterogeneous Copper–Tin Nanowire Arrays Making a Supersolder},
author = {Gong, Wei and Li, Pengfei and Zhang, Yunheng and Feng, Xuhui and Major, Joshua and DeVoto, Douglas and Paret, Paul and King, Charles and Narumanchi, Sreekant and Shen, Sheng},
abstractNote = {Due to the substantial increase in power density, thermal interface resistance that can constitute more than 50% of the total thermal resistance has generally become a bottleneck for thermal management in electronics. However, conventional thermal interface materials (TIMs) such as solder, epoxy, gel, and grease cannot fulfill the requirements of electronics for high-power and long-term operation. Here, we demonstrate a high-performance TIM consisting of a heterogeneous copper-tin nanowire array, which we term 'supersolder' to emulate the role of conventional solders in bonding various surfaces. The supersolder is ultracompliant with a shear modulus 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than traditional solders and can reduce the thermal resistance by two times as compared with the state-of-the-art TIMs. This supersolder also exhibits excellent long-term reliability with >1200 thermal cycles over a wide temperature range. By resolving this critical thermal bottleneck, the supersolder enables electronic systems, ranging from microelectronics and portable electronics to massive data centers, to operate at lower temperatures with higher power density and reliability.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.nanolett.8b00692},
journal = {Nano Letters},
number = 6,
volume = 18,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Vertically aligned copper tin nanowire arrays as super solder. (a) Schematic of thermal interface material. (b) and (c) SEM images of heterogeneous copper tin nanowire arrays. In (c), Darker portion: copper nanowires; Brighter portion: tin nanowires. (d) Optical image of two silicon substrates bonded by the super solder.more » (e) SEM image of the cross section of the super-solder. On top of the nanowires is a thin layer of copper from which the nanowires are grown, whereas a tin layer is formed at the bottom of the nanowires after soldering. Inset: zoomed in image of the continuous tin layer formed by tin nanowires after soldering.« less

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.