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Title: 3D printing via ambient reactive extrusion

Here, Additive Manufacturing (AM) has the potential to offer many benefits over traditional manufacturing methods in the fabrication of complex parts with advantages such as low weight, complex geometry, and embedded functionality. In practice, today’s AM technologies are limited by their slow speed and highly directional properties. To address both issues, we have developed a reactive mixture deposition approach that can enable 3D printing of polymer materials at over 100X the volumetric deposition rate, enabled by a greater than 10X reduction in print head mass compared to existing large-scale thermoplastic deposition methods, with material chemistries that can be tuned for specific properties. Additionally, the reaction kinetics and transient rheological properties are specifically designed for the target deposition rates, enabling the synchronized development of increasing shear modulus and extensive cross linking across the printed layers. This ambient cure eliminates the internal stresses and bulk distortions that typically hamper AM of large parts, and yields a printed part with inter-layer covalent bonds that significantly improve the strength of the part along the build direction. The fast cure kinetics combined with the fine-tuned viscoelastic properties of the mixture enable rapid vertical builds that are not possible using other approaches. Through rheological characterization ofmore » mixtures that were capable of printing in this process as well as materials that have sufficient structural integrity for layer-on-layer printing, a “printability” rheological phase diagram has been developed, and is presented here. We envision this approach implemented as a deployable manufacturing system, where manufacturing is done on-site using the efficiently-shipped polymer, locally-sourced fillers, and a small, deployable print system. Unlike existing additive manufacturing approaches which require larger and slower print systems and complex thermal management strategies as scale increases, liquid reactive polymers decouple performance and print speed from the scale of the part, enabling a new class of cost-effective, fuel-efficient additive manufacturing.« less
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. PPG, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Materials Today Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 15; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 2352-4928
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE
OSTI Identifier:
1456817

Rios, Orlando, Carter, William G., Post, Brian K., Lloyd, Peter D., Fenn, David R., Kutchko, Cindy, Rock, Reza M., Olson, Kurt G., and Compton, Brett. 3D printing via ambient reactive extrusion. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1016/j.mtcomm.2018.02.031.
Rios, Orlando, Carter, William G., Post, Brian K., Lloyd, Peter D., Fenn, David R., Kutchko, Cindy, Rock, Reza M., Olson, Kurt G., & Compton, Brett. 3D printing via ambient reactive extrusion. United States. doi:10.1016/j.mtcomm.2018.02.031.
Rios, Orlando, Carter, William G., Post, Brian K., Lloyd, Peter D., Fenn, David R., Kutchko, Cindy, Rock, Reza M., Olson, Kurt G., and Compton, Brett. 2018. "3D printing via ambient reactive extrusion". United States. doi:10.1016/j.mtcomm.2018.02.031.
@article{osti_1456817,
title = {3D printing via ambient reactive extrusion},
author = {Rios, Orlando and Carter, William G. and Post, Brian K. and Lloyd, Peter D. and Fenn, David R. and Kutchko, Cindy and Rock, Reza M. and Olson, Kurt G. and Compton, Brett},
abstractNote = {Here, Additive Manufacturing (AM) has the potential to offer many benefits over traditional manufacturing methods in the fabrication of complex parts with advantages such as low weight, complex geometry, and embedded functionality. In practice, today’s AM technologies are limited by their slow speed and highly directional properties. To address both issues, we have developed a reactive mixture deposition approach that can enable 3D printing of polymer materials at over 100X the volumetric deposition rate, enabled by a greater than 10X reduction in print head mass compared to existing large-scale thermoplastic deposition methods, with material chemistries that can be tuned for specific properties. Additionally, the reaction kinetics and transient rheological properties are specifically designed for the target deposition rates, enabling the synchronized development of increasing shear modulus and extensive cross linking across the printed layers. This ambient cure eliminates the internal stresses and bulk distortions that typically hamper AM of large parts, and yields a printed part with inter-layer covalent bonds that significantly improve the strength of the part along the build direction. The fast cure kinetics combined with the fine-tuned viscoelastic properties of the mixture enable rapid vertical builds that are not possible using other approaches. Through rheological characterization of mixtures that were capable of printing in this process as well as materials that have sufficient structural integrity for layer-on-layer printing, a “printability” rheological phase diagram has been developed, and is presented here. We envision this approach implemented as a deployable manufacturing system, where manufacturing is done on-site using the efficiently-shipped polymer, locally-sourced fillers, and a small, deployable print system. Unlike existing additive manufacturing approaches which require larger and slower print systems and complex thermal management strategies as scale increases, liquid reactive polymers decouple performance and print speed from the scale of the part, enabling a new class of cost-effective, fuel-efficient additive manufacturing.},
doi = {10.1016/j.mtcomm.2018.02.031},
journal = {Materials Today Communications},
number = C,
volume = 15,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}