skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Spark Plasma Sintering of Commercial Zirconium Carbide Powders: Densification Behavior and Mechanical Properties

Abstract

Commercial zirconium carbide (ZrC) powder is consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). Processing temperatures range from 1650 to 2100 °C. Specimens with various density levels are obtained when performing single-die SPS at different temperatures. Besides the single-die tooling setup, a double-die tooling setup is employed to largely increase the actual applied pressure to achieve higher densification in a shorter processing time. In order to describe the densification mechanism of ZrC powder under SPS conditions, a power-law creep constitutive equation is utilized, whose coefficients are determined by the inverse regression of the obtained experimental data. The densification of the selected ZrC powder is shown to be likely associated with grain boundary sliding and dislocation glide controlled creep. Transverse rupture strength and microhardness of sintered specimens are measured to be up to 380 MPa and 24 GPa, respectively. Mechanical properties are correlated with specimens’ average grain size and relative density to elucidate the co-factor dependencies.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. San Diego State Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  2. General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
  3. National Research Tomsk Polytechnic Univ., Tomsk (Russian Federation)
  4. United States Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (United States)
  5. San Diego State Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; National Research Tomsk Polytechnic Univ., Tomsk (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1455149
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0008581
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 1996-1944
Publisher:
MDPI
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; zirconium carbide (ZrC); spark plasma sintering (SPS); power-law creep (PLC); transverse rupture strength (TRS); microhardness (Hv)

Citation Formats

Wei, Xialu, Back, Christina, Izhvanov, Oleg, Khasanov, Oleg, Haines, Christopher, and Olevsky, Eugene. Spark Plasma Sintering of Commercial Zirconium Carbide Powders: Densification Behavior and Mechanical Properties. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.3390/ma8095289.
Wei, Xialu, Back, Christina, Izhvanov, Oleg, Khasanov, Oleg, Haines, Christopher, & Olevsky, Eugene. Spark Plasma Sintering of Commercial Zirconium Carbide Powders: Densification Behavior and Mechanical Properties. United States. doi:10.3390/ma8095289.
Wei, Xialu, Back, Christina, Izhvanov, Oleg, Khasanov, Oleg, Haines, Christopher, and Olevsky, Eugene. Thu . "Spark Plasma Sintering of Commercial Zirconium Carbide Powders: Densification Behavior and Mechanical Properties". United States. doi:10.3390/ma8095289. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1455149.
@article{osti_1455149,
title = {Spark Plasma Sintering of Commercial Zirconium Carbide Powders: Densification Behavior and Mechanical Properties},
author = {Wei, Xialu and Back, Christina and Izhvanov, Oleg and Khasanov, Oleg and Haines, Christopher and Olevsky, Eugene},
abstractNote = {Commercial zirconium carbide (ZrC) powder is consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). Processing temperatures range from 1650 to 2100 °C. Specimens with various density levels are obtained when performing single-die SPS at different temperatures. Besides the single-die tooling setup, a double-die tooling setup is employed to largely increase the actual applied pressure to achieve higher densification in a shorter processing time. In order to describe the densification mechanism of ZrC powder under SPS conditions, a power-law creep constitutive equation is utilized, whose coefficients are determined by the inverse regression of the obtained experimental data. The densification of the selected ZrC powder is shown to be likely associated with grain boundary sliding and dislocation glide controlled creep. Transverse rupture strength and microhardness of sintered specimens are measured to be up to 380 MPa and 24 GPa, respectively. Mechanical properties are correlated with specimens’ average grain size and relative density to elucidate the co-factor dependencies.},
doi = {10.3390/ma8095289},
journal = {Materials},
number = 9,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 21 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Kinetics of sintering for powder systems with bimodal pore-size distribution
journal, January 1995

  • Olevsky, Eugene; Rein, Rüdiger
  • High Temperatures-High Pressures, Vol. 27/28, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1068/htrm104

Spark plasma sintering of agglomerated vanadium carbide powder
journal, April 2015


Impact of Thermal Diffusion on Densification During SPS
journal, January 2009


Properties of zirconium carbide for nuclear fuel applications
journal, October 2013


Spark plasma sintering of tantalum carbide
journal, September 2010


Sintering and mechanical properties of ZrC-ZrO2 composites
journal, August 1988

  • Min-Haga, Eungi; Scott, William D.
  • Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 23, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00547460

Localized Overheating Phenomena and Optimization of Spark-Plasma Sintering Tooling Design
journal, June 2013

  • Giuntini, Diletta; Olevsky, Eugene; Garcia-Cardona, Cristina
  • Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.3390/ma6072612

Mechanical properties of nanostructured and ultrafine-grained iron alloys produced by spark plasma sintering of ball milled powders
journal, April 2008

  • Libardi, S.; Zadra, M.; Casari, F.
  • Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 478, Issue 1-2, p. 243-250
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2007.05.111

Porosity-dependence of elastic moduli and hardness of 3Y-TZP ceramics
journal, April 1999


The effect of electric field and pressure on the synthesis and consolidation of materials: A review of the spark plasma sintering method
journal, February 2006

  • Munir, Z. A.; Anselmi-Tamburini, U.; Ohyanagi, M.
  • Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 41, Issue 3, p. 763-777
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10853-006-6555-2

Experimental Investigation of Electric Contact Resistance in Spark Plasma Sintering Tooling Setup
journal, May 2015

  • Wei, Xialu; Giuntini, Diletta; Maximenko, Andrey L.
  • Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 98, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1111/jace.13621

Do we have an acceptable model of power-law creep?
journal, December 2004


Theory of Steady‐State Creep Based on Dislocation Climb
journal, October 1955


Consolidation enhancement in spark-plasma sintering: Impact of high heating rates
journal, December 2007

  • Olevsky, Eugene A.; Kandukuri, Sastry; Froyen, Ludo
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 102, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2822189

Temperature dependence of hardness in silicon–carbide ceramics with different porosity
journal, November 1999

  • Milman, Yu. V.; Chugunova, S. I.; Goncharova, I. V.
  • International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, Vol. 17, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0263-4368(99)00022-0

Densification behavior and properties of hot-pressed ZrC ceramics with Zr and graphite additives
journal, June 2011


Steady‐State Creep of Crystals
journal, October 1957


Diffusional Viscosity of a Polycrystalline Solid
journal, May 1950

  • Herring, Conyers
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 21, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1699681

Theory of sintering: from discrete to continuum
journal, June 1998


Spark plasma sintering and mechanical behaviour of ZrC-based composites
journal, September 2008


The sintering of zirconium carbide
journal, April 1977

  • Bulychev, V. P.; Andrievskii, R. A.; Nezhevenko, L. B.
  • Soviet Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics, Vol. 16, Issue 4, p. 273-276
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF00806128

Synthesis of zirconium oxycarbide (ZrCxOy) powders: Influence of stoichiometry on densification kinetics during spark plasma sintering and on mechanical properties
journal, November 2011


Consolidation/synthesis of materials by electric current activated/assisted sintering
journal, February 2009

  • Orrù, Roberto; Licheri, Roberta; Locci, Antonio Mario
  • Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, Vol. 63, Issue 4-6, p. 127-287
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.mser.2008.09.003

Grain-boundary sliding and its accommodation during creep and superplasticity
journal, August 1976


Pressureless sintering of ZrC-based ceramics by enhancing powder sinterability
journal, July 2011

  • Zhao, Liyou; Jia, Dechang; Duan, Xiaoming
  • International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2011.03.001

Spark plasma sintering of zirconium carbide and oxycarbide: Finite element modeling of current density, temperature, and stress distributions
journal, February 2009

  • Antou, Guy; Mathieu, Gendre; Trolliard, Gilles
  • Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 24, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1557/JMR.2009.0039

Hot-isostatic pressing diagrams: New developments
journal, December 1985


Steady-state diffusional creep
journal, August 1967


Hot-pressing kinetics of zirconium carbide
journal, July 1986

  • Barnier, P.; Brodhag, C.; Thevenot, F.
  • Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 21, Issue 7, p. 2547-2552
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF01114305

Electric pulse consolidation: an alternative to spark plasma sintering
journal, October 2013

  • Yurlova, M. S.; Demenyuk, V. D.; Lebedeva, L. Yu.
  • Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 49, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10853-013-7805-8

Synthesis and Densification of Monolithic Zirconium Carbide by Reactive Hot Pressing
journal, February 2010


Sintering activation by external electrical field
journal, August 2000


Constitutive modeling of spark-plasma sintering of conductive materials
journal, December 2006


A study of the densification mechanisms during spark plasma sintering of zirconium (oxy-)carbide powders
journal, April 2010


Improvement of the Spark-Plasma-Sintering Kinetics of ZrC by High-Energy Ball-Milling
journal, December 2011

  • Núñez-González, Beatriz; Ortiz, Angel L.; Guiberteau, Fernando
  • Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 95, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1551-2916.2011.05007.x

Fundamental Aspects of Spark Plasma Sintering: II. Finite Element Analysis of Scalability
journal, May 2012

  • Olevsky, Eugene A.; Garcia-Cardona, Cristina; Bradbury, William L.
  • Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 95, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1551-2916.2012.05096.x

Steady‐State Creep through Dislocation Climb
journal, March 1957


Densification mechanisms of spark plasma sintering: multi-step pressure dilatometry
journal, May 2012

  • Li, Wei; Olevsky, Eugene A.; McKittrick, Joanna
  • Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 47, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10853-012-6515-y

Pressure sintering by power law creep
journal, November 1975


Initial stage of Free Pressureless Spark-Plasma Sintering of vanadium carbide: Determination of surface diffusion parameters
journal, November 2013

  • Giuntini, Diletta; Wei, Xialu; Maximenko, Andrey L.
  • International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, Vol. 41
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2013.06.009

Fundamental Aspects of Spark Plasma Sintering: I. Experimental Analysis of Scalability
journal, May 2012

  • Olevsky, Eugene A.; Bradbury, William L.; Haines, Christopher D.
  • Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol. 95, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1551-2916.2012.05203.x

Fast low-temperature consolidation of bulk nanometric ceramic materials
journal, March 2006


Sintering behaviour and microstructures of carbides and nitrides for the inert matrix fuel by spark plasma sintering
journal, June 2006


Densification mechanisms in spark plasma sintering of nanocrystalline ceramics
journal, January 2007


Synthesis of nanosized zirconium carbide powders by a combinational method of sol–gel and pulse current heating
journal, January 2014


Analysis of Mechanisms of Spark-Plasma Sintering
journal, February 2008