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Title: An ultra-low background PMT for liquid xenon detectors

Abstract

Results are presented from radioactivity screening of two models of photomultiplier tubes designed for use in current and future liquid xenon experiments. The Hamamatsu 5.6 cm diameter R8778 PMT, used in the LUX dark matter experiment, has yielded a positive detection of four common radioactive isotopes: 238U, 232Th, 40K, and 60Co. Screening of LUX materials has rendered backgrounds from other detector materials subdominant to the R8778 contribution. A prototype Hamamatsu 7.6 cm diameter R11410 MOD PMT has also been screened, with benchmark isotope counts measured at <0.4 238U / <0.3 232Th / < 8.3 40K / 2.0+-0.2 60Co mBq/PMT. This represents a large reduction, equal to a change of x $$\frac{1}{24}$$ 238U / x $$\frac{1}{9}$$ 232Th / x $$\frac{1}{8}$$ 40K per PMT, between R8778 and R11410 MOD, concurrent with a doubling of the photocathode surface area (4.5 cm to 6.4 cm diameter). 60Co measurements are comparable between the PMTs, but can be significantly reduced in future R11410 MOD units through further material selection. Assuming PMT activity equal to the measured 90% upper limits, Monte Carlo estimates indicate that replacement of R8778 PMTs with R11410 MOD PMTs will change LUX PMT electron recoil background contributions by a factor of x $$\frac{1}{25}$$ after further material selection for 60Co reduction, and nuclear recoil backgrounds by a factor of \times $$\frac{1}{36}$$. The strong reduction in backgrounds below the measured R8778 levels makes the R11410 MOD a very competitive technology for use in large-scale liquid xenon detectors.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [5];  [6];  [1];  [4];  [7];  [1];  [1];  [6];  [8];  [1];  [9];  [7];  [7];  [7];  [1] more »;  [10];  [2];  [11];  [12];  [12];  [6];  [4];  [6];  [1];  [8];  [8];  [6];  [7];  [13];  [6];  [5];  [11];  [14];  [15];  [8];  [6];  [7];  [16];  [16];  [8];  [9];  [8];  [4];  [5];  [13];  [11];  [11];  [12];  [11];  [11];  [11];  [7];  [11];  [13];  [13];  [14];  [9];  [11];  [5] « less
  1. Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)
  2. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)
  3. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics
  4. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  5. Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States). Dept. of Physics
  6. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics
  7. Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Dept. of Physics
  8. Univ. of Coimbra, Rua Larga, Coimbra (Portugal). LIP-Coimbra, Dept. of Physics
  9. Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  10. Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics
  11. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  12. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  13. Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics
  14. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  15. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  16. Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Contributing Org.:
Nuclear Science and Security Consortium
OSTI Identifier:
1454539
Grant/Contract Number:  
NA0000979; FG02-91ER40688
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 703; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0168-9002
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; PMT; Liquid xenon detectors; Radioactivity

Citation Formats

Akerib, D. S., Bai, X., Bernard, E., Bernstein, A., Bradley, A., Byram, D., Cahn, S. B., Carmona-Benitez, M. C., Carr, D., Chapman, J. J., Clark, K., Coffey, T., Edwards, B., de Viveiros, L., Dragowsky, M., Druszkiewicz, E., Faham, C. H., Fiorucci, S., Gaitskell, R. J., Gibson, K. R., Hall, C., Hanhardt, M., Holbrook, B., Ihm, M., Jacobsen, R. G., Kastens, L., Kazkaz, K., Larsen, N., Lee, C., Lindote, A., Lopes, M. I., Lyashenko, A., Malling, D. C., Mannino, R., McKinsey, D. N., Mei, D. -M, Mock, J., Morii, M., Nelson, H., Neves, F., Nikkel, J. A., Pangilinan, M., Phelps, P., Shutt, T., Silva, C., Skulski, W., Solovov, V. N., Sorensen, P., Spaans, J., Stiegler, T., Sweany, M., Szydagis, M., Taylor, D., Thomson, J., Tripathi, M., Uvarov, S., Verbus, J. R., Walsh, N., Webb, R., White, J. T., Wlasenko, M., Wolfs, F. L. H., Woods, M., and Zhang, C. An ultra-low background PMT for liquid xenon detectors. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2012.11.020.
Akerib, D. S., Bai, X., Bernard, E., Bernstein, A., Bradley, A., Byram, D., Cahn, S. B., Carmona-Benitez, M. C., Carr, D., Chapman, J. J., Clark, K., Coffey, T., Edwards, B., de Viveiros, L., Dragowsky, M., Druszkiewicz, E., Faham, C. H., Fiorucci, S., Gaitskell, R. J., Gibson, K. R., Hall, C., Hanhardt, M., Holbrook, B., Ihm, M., Jacobsen, R. G., Kastens, L., Kazkaz, K., Larsen, N., Lee, C., Lindote, A., Lopes, M. I., Lyashenko, A., Malling, D. C., Mannino, R., McKinsey, D. N., Mei, D. -M, Mock, J., Morii, M., Nelson, H., Neves, F., Nikkel, J. A., Pangilinan, M., Phelps, P., Shutt, T., Silva, C., Skulski, W., Solovov, V. N., Sorensen, P., Spaans, J., Stiegler, T., Sweany, M., Szydagis, M., Taylor, D., Thomson, J., Tripathi, M., Uvarov, S., Verbus, J. R., Walsh, N., Webb, R., White, J. T., Wlasenko, M., Wolfs, F. L. H., Woods, M., & Zhang, C. An ultra-low background PMT for liquid xenon detectors. United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2012.11.020.
Akerib, D. S., Bai, X., Bernard, E., Bernstein, A., Bradley, A., Byram, D., Cahn, S. B., Carmona-Benitez, M. C., Carr, D., Chapman, J. J., Clark, K., Coffey, T., Edwards, B., de Viveiros, L., Dragowsky, M., Druszkiewicz, E., Faham, C. H., Fiorucci, S., Gaitskell, R. J., Gibson, K. R., Hall, C., Hanhardt, M., Holbrook, B., Ihm, M., Jacobsen, R. G., Kastens, L., Kazkaz, K., Larsen, N., Lee, C., Lindote, A., Lopes, M. I., Lyashenko, A., Malling, D. C., Mannino, R., McKinsey, D. N., Mei, D. -M, Mock, J., Morii, M., Nelson, H., Neves, F., Nikkel, J. A., Pangilinan, M., Phelps, P., Shutt, T., Silva, C., Skulski, W., Solovov, V. N., Sorensen, P., Spaans, J., Stiegler, T., Sweany, M., Szydagis, M., Taylor, D., Thomson, J., Tripathi, M., Uvarov, S., Verbus, J. R., Walsh, N., Webb, R., White, J. T., Wlasenko, M., Wolfs, F. L. H., Woods, M., and Zhang, C. Thu . "An ultra-low background PMT for liquid xenon detectors". United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2012.11.020. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1454539.
@article{osti_1454539,
title = {An ultra-low background PMT for liquid xenon detectors},
author = {Akerib, D. S. and Bai, X. and Bernard, E. and Bernstein, A. and Bradley, A. and Byram, D. and Cahn, S. B. and Carmona-Benitez, M. C. and Carr, D. and Chapman, J. J. and Clark, K. and Coffey, T. and Edwards, B. and de Viveiros, L. and Dragowsky, M. and Druszkiewicz, E. and Faham, C. H. and Fiorucci, S. and Gaitskell, R. J. and Gibson, K. R. and Hall, C. and Hanhardt, M. and Holbrook, B. and Ihm, M. and Jacobsen, R. G. and Kastens, L. and Kazkaz, K. and Larsen, N. and Lee, C. and Lindote, A. and Lopes, M. I. and Lyashenko, A. and Malling, D. C. and Mannino, R. and McKinsey, D. N. and Mei, D. -M and Mock, J. and Morii, M. and Nelson, H. and Neves, F. and Nikkel, J. A. and Pangilinan, M. and Phelps, P. and Shutt, T. and Silva, C. and Skulski, W. and Solovov, V. N. and Sorensen, P. and Spaans, J. and Stiegler, T. and Sweany, M. and Szydagis, M. and Taylor, D. and Thomson, J. and Tripathi, M. and Uvarov, S. and Verbus, J. R. and Walsh, N. and Webb, R. and White, J. T. and Wlasenko, M. and Wolfs, F. L. H. and Woods, M. and Zhang, C.},
abstractNote = {Results are presented from radioactivity screening of two models of photomultiplier tubes designed for use in current and future liquid xenon experiments. The Hamamatsu 5.6 cm diameter R8778 PMT, used in the LUX dark matter experiment, has yielded a positive detection of four common radioactive isotopes: 238U, 232Th, 40K, and 60Co. Screening of LUX materials has rendered backgrounds from other detector materials subdominant to the R8778 contribution. A prototype Hamamatsu 7.6 cm diameter R11410 MOD PMT has also been screened, with benchmark isotope counts measured at <0.4 238U / <0.3 232Th / < 8.340K / 2.0+-0.2 60Co mBq/PMT. This represents a large reduction, equal to a change of x $\frac{1}{24}$ 238U / x $\frac{1}{9}$ 232Th / x $\frac{1}{8}$ 40K per PMT, between R8778 and R11410 MOD, concurrent with a doubling of the photocathode surface area (4.5 cm to 6.4 cm diameter). 60Co measurements are comparable between the PMTs, but can be significantly reduced in future R11410 MOD units through further material selection. Assuming PMT activity equal to the measured 90% upper limits, Monte Carlo estimates indicate that replacement of R8778 PMTs with R11410 MOD PMTs will change LUX PMT electron recoil background contributions by a factor of x $\frac{1}{25}$ after further material selection for 60Co reduction, and nuclear recoil backgrounds by a factor of \times $\frac{1}{36}$. The strong reduction in backgrounds below the measured R8778 levels makes the R11410 MOD a very competitive technology for use in large-scale liquid xenon detectors.},
doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2012.11.020},
journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment},
number = C,
volume = 703,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {11}
}

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