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Title: Galinstan liquid metal breakup and droplet formation in a shock-induced cross-flow

Liquid metal breakup processes are important for understanding a variety of physical phenomena including metal powder formation, thermal spray coatings, fragmentation in explosive detonations and metalized propellant combustion. Since the breakup behaviors of liquid metals are not well studied, we experimentally investigate the roles of higher density and fast elastic surface oxide formation on breakup morphology and droplet characteristics. This work compares the column breakup of water with Galinstan, a room-temperature eutectic liquid metal alloy of gallium, indium and tin. A shock tube is used to generate a step change in convective velocity and back-lit imaging is used to classify morphologies for Weber numbers up to 250. Digital in-line holography (DIH) is then used to quantitatively capture droplet size, velocity and three-dimensional position information. Differences in geometry between canonical spherical drops and the liquid columns utilized in this paper are likely responsible for observations of earlier transition Weber numbers and uni-modal droplet volume distributions. Scaling laws indicate that Galinstan and water share similar droplet size-velocity trends and root-normal volume probability distributions. Furthermore, measurements indicate that Galinstan breakup occurs earlier in non-dimensional time and produces more non-spherical droplets due to fast oxide formation.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  2. Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
SAND-2018-6044J
Journal ID: ISSN 0301-9322; 664065
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
International Journal of Multiphase Flow
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 106; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0301-9322
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Liquid metal; Liquid breakup; Shock-induced cross-flow; Galinstan; Digital in-line holography; Droplet quantification
OSTI Identifier:
1444082

Chen, Yi, Wagner, Justin L., Farias, Paul Abraham, DeMauro, Edward P., and Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert. Galinstan liquid metal breakup and droplet formation in a shock-induced cross-flow. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2018.05.015.
Chen, Yi, Wagner, Justin L., Farias, Paul Abraham, DeMauro, Edward P., & Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert. Galinstan liquid metal breakup and droplet formation in a shock-induced cross-flow. United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2018.05.015.
Chen, Yi, Wagner, Justin L., Farias, Paul Abraham, DeMauro, Edward P., and Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert. 2018. "Galinstan liquid metal breakup and droplet formation in a shock-induced cross-flow". United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2018.05.015.
@article{osti_1444082,
title = {Galinstan liquid metal breakup and droplet formation in a shock-induced cross-flow},
author = {Chen, Yi and Wagner, Justin L. and Farias, Paul Abraham and DeMauro, Edward P. and Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert},
abstractNote = {Liquid metal breakup processes are important for understanding a variety of physical phenomena including metal powder formation, thermal spray coatings, fragmentation in explosive detonations and metalized propellant combustion. Since the breakup behaviors of liquid metals are not well studied, we experimentally investigate the roles of higher density and fast elastic surface oxide formation on breakup morphology and droplet characteristics. This work compares the column breakup of water with Galinstan, a room-temperature eutectic liquid metal alloy of gallium, indium and tin. A shock tube is used to generate a step change in convective velocity and back-lit imaging is used to classify morphologies for Weber numbers up to 250. Digital in-line holography (DIH) is then used to quantitatively capture droplet size, velocity and three-dimensional position information. Differences in geometry between canonical spherical drops and the liquid columns utilized in this paper are likely responsible for observations of earlier transition Weber numbers and uni-modal droplet volume distributions. Scaling laws indicate that Galinstan and water share similar droplet size-velocity trends and root-normal volume probability distributions. Furthermore, measurements indicate that Galinstan breakup occurs earlier in non-dimensional time and produces more non-spherical droplets due to fast oxide formation.},
doi = {10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2018.05.015},
journal = {International Journal of Multiphase Flow},
number = C,
volume = 106,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}