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Title: Large-Eddy Simulation Sensitivities to Variations of Configuration and Forcing Parameters in Canonical Boundary-Layer Flows for Wind Energy Applications

Here, the sensitivities of idealized Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) to variations of model configuration and forcing parameters on quantities of interest to wind power applications are examined. Simulated wind speed, turbulent fluxes, spectra and cospectra are assessed in relation to variations of two physical factors, geostrophic wind speed and surface roughness length, and several model configuration choices, including mesh size and grid aspect ratio, turbulence model, and numerical discretization schemes, in three different code bases. Two case studies representing nearly steady neutral and convective atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow conditions over nearly flat and homogeneous terrain were used to force and assess idealized LES, using periodic lateral boundary conditions. Comparison with fast-response velocity measurements at five heights within the lowest 50 m indicates that most model configurations performed similarly overall, with differences between observed and predicted wind speed generally smaller than measurement variability. Simulations of convective conditions produced turbulence quantities and spectra that matched the observations well, while those of neutral simulations produced good predictions of stress, but smaller than observed magnitudes of turbulence kinetic energy, likely due to tower wakes influencing the measurements. While sensitivities to model configuration choices and variability in forcing can be considerable, idealized LES are shownmore » to reliably reproduce quantities of interest to wind energy applications within the lower ABL during quasi-ideal, nearly steady neutral and convective conditions over nearly flat and homogeneous terrain.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ; ORCiD logo [6] ; ORCiD logo [6] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [2] ; ORCiD logo [8] ; ORCiD logo [4] ; ORCiD logo [4] ; ORCiD logo [2] ;  [9] ;  [5] ;  [5] ;  [10] ;  [11] ;  [12]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
  4. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  5. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  6. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)
  7. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
  8. Centro Nacional de Energias Renovables, Navarra (Spain)
  9. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  10. United States Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)
  11. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); United States Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)
  12. United States Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5000-70811
Journal ID: ISSN 2366-7621
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Wind Energy Science Discussions
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2366-7621
Publisher:
European Academy of Wind Energy - Copernicus
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Wind Energy Technologies Office (EE-4WE)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
17 WIND ENERGY; wind energy; wind power; large-eddy simulation; LES; atmospheric boundary layer
OSTI Identifier:
1441170

Mirocha, Jeffrey D., Churchfield, Matthew J., Munoz-Esparza, Domingo, Rai, Raj K., Feng, Yan, Kosovic, Branko, Haupt, Sue Ellen, Brown, Barbara, Ennis, Brandon L., Draxl, Caroline, Sanz Rodrigo, Javier, Shaw, William J., Berg, Larry K., Moriarty, Patrick J., Linn, Rodman R., Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra R., Balakrishnan, Ramesh, Cline, Joel W., Robinson, Michael C., and Ananthan, Shreyas. Large-Eddy Simulation Sensitivities to Variations of Configuration and Forcing Parameters in Canonical Boundary-Layer Flows for Wind Energy Applications. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.5194/wes-2017-33.
Mirocha, Jeffrey D., Churchfield, Matthew J., Munoz-Esparza, Domingo, Rai, Raj K., Feng, Yan, Kosovic, Branko, Haupt, Sue Ellen, Brown, Barbara, Ennis, Brandon L., Draxl, Caroline, Sanz Rodrigo, Javier, Shaw, William J., Berg, Larry K., Moriarty, Patrick J., Linn, Rodman R., Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra R., Balakrishnan, Ramesh, Cline, Joel W., Robinson, Michael C., & Ananthan, Shreyas. Large-Eddy Simulation Sensitivities to Variations of Configuration and Forcing Parameters in Canonical Boundary-Layer Flows for Wind Energy Applications. United States. doi:10.5194/wes-2017-33.
Mirocha, Jeffrey D., Churchfield, Matthew J., Munoz-Esparza, Domingo, Rai, Raj K., Feng, Yan, Kosovic, Branko, Haupt, Sue Ellen, Brown, Barbara, Ennis, Brandon L., Draxl, Caroline, Sanz Rodrigo, Javier, Shaw, William J., Berg, Larry K., Moriarty, Patrick J., Linn, Rodman R., Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra R., Balakrishnan, Ramesh, Cline, Joel W., Robinson, Michael C., and Ananthan, Shreyas. 2018. "Large-Eddy Simulation Sensitivities to Variations of Configuration and Forcing Parameters in Canonical Boundary-Layer Flows for Wind Energy Applications". United States. doi:10.5194/wes-2017-33. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1441170.
@article{osti_1441170,
title = {Large-Eddy Simulation Sensitivities to Variations of Configuration and Forcing Parameters in Canonical Boundary-Layer Flows for Wind Energy Applications},
author = {Mirocha, Jeffrey D. and Churchfield, Matthew J. and Munoz-Esparza, Domingo and Rai, Raj K. and Feng, Yan and Kosovic, Branko and Haupt, Sue Ellen and Brown, Barbara and Ennis, Brandon L. and Draxl, Caroline and Sanz Rodrigo, Javier and Shaw, William J. and Berg, Larry K. and Moriarty, Patrick J. and Linn, Rodman R. and Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra R. and Balakrishnan, Ramesh and Cline, Joel W. and Robinson, Michael C. and Ananthan, Shreyas},
abstractNote = {Here, the sensitivities of idealized Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) to variations of model configuration and forcing parameters on quantities of interest to wind power applications are examined. Simulated wind speed, turbulent fluxes, spectra and cospectra are assessed in relation to variations of two physical factors, geostrophic wind speed and surface roughness length, and several model configuration choices, including mesh size and grid aspect ratio, turbulence model, and numerical discretization schemes, in three different code bases. Two case studies representing nearly steady neutral and convective atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow conditions over nearly flat and homogeneous terrain were used to force and assess idealized LES, using periodic lateral boundary conditions. Comparison with fast-response velocity measurements at five heights within the lowest 50 m indicates that most model configurations performed similarly overall, with differences between observed and predicted wind speed generally smaller than measurement variability. Simulations of convective conditions produced turbulence quantities and spectra that matched the observations well, while those of neutral simulations produced good predictions of stress, but smaller than observed magnitudes of turbulence kinetic energy, likely due to tower wakes influencing the measurements. While sensitivities to model configuration choices and variability in forcing can be considerable, idealized LES are shown to reliably reproduce quantities of interest to wind energy applications within the lower ABL during quasi-ideal, nearly steady neutral and convective conditions over nearly flat and homogeneous terrain.},
doi = {10.5194/wes-2017-33},
journal = {Wind Energy Science Discussions},
number = ,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {9}
}