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Title: Thickness-independent capacitance of vertically aligned liquid-crystalline MXenes

Abstract

The scalable and sustainable manufacture of thick electrode films with high energy and power densities is critical for the large-scale storage of electrochemical energy for application in transportation and stationary electric grids. Two-dimensional nanomaterials have become the predominant choice of electrode material in the pursuit of high energy and power densities owing to their large surface-area-to-volume ratios and lack of solid-state diffusion. However, traditional electrode fabrication methods often lead to restacking of two-dimensional nanomaterials, which limits ion transport in thick films and results in systems in which the electrochemical performance is highly dependent on the thickness of the film. Strategies for facilitating ion transport—such as increasing the interlayer spacing by intercalation or introducing film porosity by designing nanoarchitectures—result in materials with low volumetric energy storage as well as complex and lengthy ion transport paths that impede performance at high charge–discharge rates. Vertical alignment of two-dimensional flakes enables directional ion transport that can lead to thickness-independent electrochemical performances in thick films. However, so far only limited success has been reported, and the mitigation of performance losses remains a major challenge when working with films of two-dimensional nanomaterials with thicknesses that are near to or exceed the industrial standard of 100 micrometres.more » Here we demonstrate electrochemical energy storage that is independent of film thickness for vertically aligned two-dimensional titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx), a material from the MXene family (two-dimensional carbides and nitrides of transition metals (M), where X stands for carbon or nitrogen). The vertical alignment was achieved by mechanical shearing of a discotic lamellar liquid-crystal phase of Ti3C2Tx. The resulting electrode films show excellent performance that is nearly independent of film thickness up to 200 micrometres, which makes them highly attractive for energy storage applications. In conclusion, the self-assembly approach presented here is scalable and can be extended to other systems that involve directional transport, such as catalysis and filtration.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [4];  [5];  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  2. Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  3. Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  4. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Northwestern Polytechnical Univ., Xi'an (China)
  5. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport Center (FIRST)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1440811
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature (London)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Nature (London); Journal Volume: 557; Journal Issue: 7705; Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE

Citation Formats

Xia, Yu, Mathis, Tyler S., Zhao, Meng -Qiang, Anasori, Babak, Dang, Alei, Zhou, Zehang, Cho, Hyesung, Gogotsi, Yury G., and Yang, Shu. Thickness-independent capacitance of vertically aligned liquid-crystalline MXenes. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0109-z.
Xia, Yu, Mathis, Tyler S., Zhao, Meng -Qiang, Anasori, Babak, Dang, Alei, Zhou, Zehang, Cho, Hyesung, Gogotsi, Yury G., & Yang, Shu. Thickness-independent capacitance of vertically aligned liquid-crystalline MXenes. United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0109-z
Xia, Yu, Mathis, Tyler S., Zhao, Meng -Qiang, Anasori, Babak, Dang, Alei, Zhou, Zehang, Cho, Hyesung, Gogotsi, Yury G., and Yang, Shu. Wed . "Thickness-independent capacitance of vertically aligned liquid-crystalline MXenes". United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0109-z. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1440811.
@article{osti_1440811,
title = {Thickness-independent capacitance of vertically aligned liquid-crystalline MXenes},
author = {Xia, Yu and Mathis, Tyler S. and Zhao, Meng -Qiang and Anasori, Babak and Dang, Alei and Zhou, Zehang and Cho, Hyesung and Gogotsi, Yury G. and Yang, Shu},
abstractNote = {The scalable and sustainable manufacture of thick electrode films with high energy and power densities is critical for the large-scale storage of electrochemical energy for application in transportation and stationary electric grids. Two-dimensional nanomaterials have become the predominant choice of electrode material in the pursuit of high energy and power densities owing to their large surface-area-to-volume ratios and lack of solid-state diffusion. However, traditional electrode fabrication methods often lead to restacking of two-dimensional nanomaterials, which limits ion transport in thick films and results in systems in which the electrochemical performance is highly dependent on the thickness of the film. Strategies for facilitating ion transport—such as increasing the interlayer spacing by intercalation or introducing film porosity by designing nanoarchitectures—result in materials with low volumetric energy storage as well as complex and lengthy ion transport paths that impede performance at high charge–discharge rates. Vertical alignment of two-dimensional flakes enables directional ion transport that can lead to thickness-independent electrochemical performances in thick films. However, so far only limited success has been reported, and the mitigation of performance losses remains a major challenge when working with films of two-dimensional nanomaterials with thicknesses that are near to or exceed the industrial standard of 100 micrometres. Here we demonstrate electrochemical energy storage that is independent of film thickness for vertically aligned two-dimensional titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx), a material from the MXene family (two-dimensional carbides and nitrides of transition metals (M), where X stands for carbon or nitrogen). The vertical alignment was achieved by mechanical shearing of a discotic lamellar liquid-crystal phase of Ti3C2Tx. The resulting electrode films show excellent performance that is nearly independent of film thickness up to 200 micrometres, which makes them highly attractive for energy storage applications. In conclusion, the self-assembly approach presented here is scalable and can be extended to other systems that involve directional transport, such as catalysis and filtration.},
doi = {10.1038/s41586-018-0109-z},
journal = {Nature (London)},
number = 7705,
volume = 557,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Schematic illustration of ion transport in horizontally stacked (a) and vertically aligned (b) Ti3C2TX MXene films. The blue lines indicate ion transport pathways. (c) Illustration of the surfactant (C12E6) enhanced lamellar structure of MXene lamellar LC (referred as MXLLC). Red color indicates the hydrophilic tail and green colormore » shows the hydrophobic part of the surfactant. The hydrogen bonding between C12E6 and the MXene surface is also illustrated. The director of the MXLLC is labeled with an arrow. (d) Illustration of the alignment method used in this work. The blue bottom and top plates are illustrations of the shear plates. Under mechanical shear flow, the randomly aligned structure of MXLLC can be aligned with the flow direction, with the director of MXLLC being perpendicular to the shear direction.« less

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    journal, January 2020

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    • RSC Advances, Vol. 10, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ra09069j

    A safe and fast-charging lithium-ion battery anode using MXene supported Li 3 VO 4
    journal, January 2019

    • Huang, Yanghang; Yang, Haochen; Zhang, Yi
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 18
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta02037c

    Ionic liquid pre-intercalated MXene films for ionogel-based flexible micro-supercapacitors with high volumetric energy density
    journal, January 2019

    • Zheng, Shuanghao; Zhang, Chuanfang (John); Zhou, Feng
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 16
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta02190f

    Facile preparation of novel and active 2D nanosheets from non-layered and traditionally non-exfoliable earth-abundant materials
    journal, January 2019

    • Liu, Sheng; Xie, Lei; Qian, Hui
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 25
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta04442f

    Microcrystalline cellulose-derived porous carbons with defective sites for electrochemical applications
    journal, January 2019

    • Lu, Hao; Zhuang, Linzhou; Gaddam, Rohit Ranganathan
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 39
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta05891e

    Colloidal nanoparticle inks for printing functional devices: emerging trends and future prospects
    journal, January 2019

    • Zeng, Minxiang; Zhang, Yanliang
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 41
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta07552f

    Sulfur covalently bonded to porous graphitic carbon as an anode material for lithium-ion capacitors with high energy storage performance
    journal, January 2020

    • Sun, Yue; Ma, Junpeng; Yang, Xinyue
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 8, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta09347h

    Vertically constructed monolithic electrodes for sodium ion batteries: toward low tortuosity and high energy density
    journal, January 2019

    • Li, Ping; Wang, Yanan; Jeong, Jong Yeob
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 45
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta09644b

    Dense organic molecules/graphene network anodes with superior volumetric and areal performance for asymmetric supercapacitors
    journal, January 2020

    • Zhang, Lina; Han, Daliang; Tao, Ying
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 8, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta09941g

    Iridescence in nematics: Photonic liquid crystals of nanoplates in absence of long-range periodicity
    journal, August 2019

    • Zeng, Minxiang; King, Daniel; Huang, Dali
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 116, Issue 37
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1906511116

    Tailoring surface patterns to direct the assembly of liquid crystalline materials
    journal, January 2019


    Structural, mechanical and electronic properties of two-dimensional chlorine-terminated transition metal carbides and nitrides
    journal, January 2020

    • Qin, Yanqing; Zha, Xian-Hu; Bai, Xiaojing
    • Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 32, Issue 13
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-648x/ab6048

    Rainbows in a vial: controlled assembly of 2D colloids in two perpendicular external fields
    journal, March 2019


    Dual-field-induced biaxial nematic ordering of two-dimensional nanoparticles and enhancement of interparticle interactions
    journal, August 2019


    Leaf-inspired multiresponsive MXene-based actuator for programmable smart devices
    journal, July 2019


    3D Printing of Freestanding MXene Architectures for Current‐Collector‐Free Supercapacitors
    journal, July 2019


    2D Metal Carbides and Nitrides (MXenes) as High-Performance Electrode Materials for Lithium-Based Batteries
    journal, September 2018


    On‐Chip MXene Microsupercapacitors for AC‐Line Filtering Applications
    journal, May 2019


    Elucidating Ultrafast Molecular Permeation through Well‐Defined 2D Nanochannels of Lamellar Membranes
    journal, November 2019


    Fabrication of Cobaltosic Oxide Nanoparticle‐Doped 3 D MXene/Graphene Hybrid Porous Aerogels for All‐Solid‐State Supercapacitors
    journal, March 2019

    • Liu, Rui; Zhang, Aitang; Tang, Jianguo
    • Chemistry – A European Journal, Vol. 25, Issue 21
    • DOI: 10.1002/chem.201806342

    Cyclic Voltammetry in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries—Challenges and Opportunities
    journal, April 2019


    Nanoengineering of 2D MXene‐Based Materials for Energy Storage Applications
    journal, July 2019


    Dual-phase nanostructuring of layered metal oxides for high-performance aqueous rechargeable potassium ion microbatteries
    journal, September 2019


    Polypyrrole–MXene coated textile-based flexible energy storage device
    journal, January 2018

    • Yan, Jinfeng; Ma, Yanan; Zhang, Chuankun
    • RSC Advances, Vol. 8, Issue 69
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8ra08403c

    2D-dual-spacing channel membranes for high performance organic solvent nanofiltration
    journal, January 2019

    • Wang, Shaofei; Mahalingam, Dinesh; Sutisna, Burhannudin
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 19
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8ta10872b

    Modulation engineering of 2D MXene-based compounds for metal-ion batteries
    journal, January 2019

    • Yu, Yadong; Zhou, Jian; Sun, Zhimei
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 11, Issue 48
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9nr08217d

    A loosely stacked lamellar membrane of irregular MoS 2 flakes for ultrahigh water and organics permeation
    journal, January 2019

    • Cui, Xulin; Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jie
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 20
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta03159f

    Hollow TiN nanotrees derived from a surface-induced Kirkendall effect and their application in high-power supercapacitors
    journal, January 2019

    • Wen, Wei; Yao, Jincheng; Tan, Hua
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 37
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta07642e

    Cobalt decorated ultra-thin Ti 3 C 2 MXene electrocatalyst for high-efficiency hydrogen evolution reaction
    journal, November 2018


    Energy storage: The future enabled by nanomaterials
    journal, November 2019

    • Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Feng, Xinliang
    • Science, Vol. 366, Issue 6468
    • DOI: 10.1126/science.aan8285

    Atomic Interlamellar Ion Path in High Sulfur Content Lithium-Montmorillonite Host Enables High-Rate and Stable Lithium-Sulfur Battery
    journal, August 2018


    Carbon-incorporated porous honeycomb NiCoFe phosphide nanospheres derived from a MOF precursor for overall water splitting
    journal, January 2019

    • Wei, Xijun; Zhang, Yunhuai; He, Huichao
    • Chemical Communications, Vol. 55, Issue 73
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9cc05225a

    2D/2D heterojunction of Ti 3 C 2 /g-C 3 N 4 nanosheets for enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution
    journal, January 2019

    • Su, Tongming; Hood, Zachary D.; Naguib, Michael
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 11, Issue 17
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9nr00168a

      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.