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Title: A compressed sensing X-ray camera with a multilayer architecture

Abstract

Recent advances in compressed sensing theory and algorithms offer new possibilities for high-speed X-ray camera design. In many CMOS cameras, each pixel has an independent on-board circuit that includes an amplifier, noise rejection, signal shaper, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and optional in-pixel storage. When X-ray images are sparse, i.e., when one of the following cases is true: (a.) The number of pixels with true X-ray hits is much smaller than the total number of pixels; (b.) The X-ray information is redundant; or (c.) Some prior knowledge about the X-ray images exists, sparse sampling may be allowed. In this work, we first illustrate the feasibility of random on-board pixel sampling (ROPS) using an existing set of X-ray images, followed by a discussion about signal to noise as a function of pixel size. Next, we describe a possible circuit architecture to achieve random pixel access and in-pixel storage. The combination of a multilayer architecture, sparse on-chip sampling, and computational image techniques, is expected to facilitate the development and applications of high-speed X-ray camera technology.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [5]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  2. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States). Particle Physics Division
  3. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
  4. Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
  5. Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); US Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research (ONR); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Programs (DP) (NA-10)
OSTI Identifier:
1439873
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1477718
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-28494
Journal ID: ISSN 1748-0221; 143792
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357; N00014-14-1-0628; AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Instrumentation
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 13; Journal Issue: 01; Journal ID: ISSN 1748-0221
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; Sparse signals; multilayer 2D detector architecture; Random pixel access, GaN Sensor

Citation Formats

Wang, Zhehui, Laroshenko, O., Li, S., Liu, T., Parab, N., Chen, W. W., Chu, P., Kenyon, G. T., Lipton, R., and Sun, K. -X. A compressed sensing X-ray camera with a multilayer architecture. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/13/01/c01035.
Wang, Zhehui, Laroshenko, O., Li, S., Liu, T., Parab, N., Chen, W. W., Chu, P., Kenyon, G. T., Lipton, R., & Sun, K. -X. A compressed sensing X-ray camera with a multilayer architecture. United States. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/13/01/c01035.
Wang, Zhehui, Laroshenko, O., Li, S., Liu, T., Parab, N., Chen, W. W., Chu, P., Kenyon, G. T., Lipton, R., and Sun, K. -X. Thu . "A compressed sensing X-ray camera with a multilayer architecture". United States. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/13/01/c01035. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1439873.
@article{osti_1439873,
title = {A compressed sensing X-ray camera with a multilayer architecture},
author = {Wang, Zhehui and Laroshenko, O. and Li, S. and Liu, T. and Parab, N. and Chen, W. W. and Chu, P. and Kenyon, G. T. and Lipton, R. and Sun, K. -X.},
abstractNote = {Recent advances in compressed sensing theory and algorithms offer new possibilities for high-speed X-ray camera design. In many CMOS cameras, each pixel has an independent on-board circuit that includes an amplifier, noise rejection, signal shaper, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and optional in-pixel storage. When X-ray images are sparse, i.e., when one of the following cases is true: (a.) The number of pixels with true X-ray hits is much smaller than the total number of pixels; (b.) The X-ray information is redundant; or (c.) Some prior knowledge about the X-ray images exists, sparse sampling may be allowed. In this work, we first illustrate the feasibility of random on-board pixel sampling (ROPS) using an existing set of X-ray images, followed by a discussion about signal to noise as a function of pixel size. Next, we describe a possible circuit architecture to achieve random pixel access and in-pixel storage. The combination of a multilayer architecture, sparse on-chip sampling, and computational image techniques, is expected to facilitate the development and applications of high-speed X-ray camera technology.},
doi = {10.1088/1748-0221/13/01/c01035},
journal = {Journal of Instrumentation},
number = 01,
volume = 13,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Images from eight experiments are used as training data. (Top). Frame 1 out of 256. (Bottom). Frame 176 out of 256.

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