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Title: X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses

Abstract

Multilayer Laue lenses are volume diffraction elements for the efficient focusing of X-rays. With a new manufacturing technique that we introduced, it is possible to fabricate lenses of sufficiently high numerical aperture (NA) to achieve focal spot sizes below 10 nm. The alternating layers of the materials that form the lens must span a broad range of thicknesses on the nanometer scale to achieve the necessary range of X-ray deflection angles required to achieve a high NA. This poses a challenge to both the accuracy of the deposition process and the control of the materials properties, which often vary with layer thickness. We introduced a new pair of materials—tungsten carbide and silicon carbide—to prepare layered structures with smooth and sharp interfaces and with no material phase transitions that hampered the manufacture of previous lenses. Using a pair of multilayer Laue lenses (MLLs) fabricated from this system, we achieved a two-dimensional focus of 8.4 × 6.8 nm 2 at a photon energy of 16.3 keV with high diffraction efficiency and demonstrated scanning-based imaging of samples with a resolution well below 10 nm. The high NA also allowed projection holographic imaging with strong phase contrast over a large range of magnifications. Furthermore,more » an error analysis indicates the possibility of achieving 1 nm focusing.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1] more »;  [1];  [6];  [6];  [6];  [6];  [7] « less
  1. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  2. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Hamburg (Germany)
  3. National Science Foundation BioXFEL Science and Technology Center, Buffalo, NY (United States)
  4. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
  5. Univ. of Bialystok, Bialystok (Poland)
  6. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  7. Alfred-Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1439298
Report Number(s):
BNL-205711-2018-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 2047-7538
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Light, Science & Applications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2047-7538
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; multilayer Laue lenses; multilayers; ptychography; X-ray holography; X-ray optics

Citation Formats

Bajt, Sasa, Prasciolu, Mauro, Fleckenstein, Holger, Domaracky, Martin, Chapman, Henry N., Morgan, Andrew J., Yefanov, Oleksandr, Messerschmidt, Marc, Du, Yang, Murray, Kevin T., Mariani, Valerio, Kuhn, Manuela, Aplin, Steven, Pande, Kanupriya, Villanueva-Perez, Pablo, Stachnik, Karolina, Chen, Joe P. J., Andrejczuk, Andrzej, Meents, Alke, Burkhardt, Anja, Pennicard, David, Huang, Xiaojing, Yan, Hanfei, Nazaretski, Evgeny, Chu, Yong S., and Hamm, Christian E. X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/lsa.2017.162.
Bajt, Sasa, Prasciolu, Mauro, Fleckenstein, Holger, Domaracky, Martin, Chapman, Henry N., Morgan, Andrew J., Yefanov, Oleksandr, Messerschmidt, Marc, Du, Yang, Murray, Kevin T., Mariani, Valerio, Kuhn, Manuela, Aplin, Steven, Pande, Kanupriya, Villanueva-Perez, Pablo, Stachnik, Karolina, Chen, Joe P. J., Andrejczuk, Andrzej, Meents, Alke, Burkhardt, Anja, Pennicard, David, Huang, Xiaojing, Yan, Hanfei, Nazaretski, Evgeny, Chu, Yong S., & Hamm, Christian E. X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses. United States. doi:10.1038/lsa.2017.162.
Bajt, Sasa, Prasciolu, Mauro, Fleckenstein, Holger, Domaracky, Martin, Chapman, Henry N., Morgan, Andrew J., Yefanov, Oleksandr, Messerschmidt, Marc, Du, Yang, Murray, Kevin T., Mariani, Valerio, Kuhn, Manuela, Aplin, Steven, Pande, Kanupriya, Villanueva-Perez, Pablo, Stachnik, Karolina, Chen, Joe P. J., Andrejczuk, Andrzej, Meents, Alke, Burkhardt, Anja, Pennicard, David, Huang, Xiaojing, Yan, Hanfei, Nazaretski, Evgeny, Chu, Yong S., and Hamm, Christian E. Fri . "X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses". United States. doi:10.1038/lsa.2017.162. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1439298.
@article{osti_1439298,
title = {X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses},
author = {Bajt, Sasa and Prasciolu, Mauro and Fleckenstein, Holger and Domaracky, Martin and Chapman, Henry N. and Morgan, Andrew J. and Yefanov, Oleksandr and Messerschmidt, Marc and Du, Yang and Murray, Kevin T. and Mariani, Valerio and Kuhn, Manuela and Aplin, Steven and Pande, Kanupriya and Villanueva-Perez, Pablo and Stachnik, Karolina and Chen, Joe P. J. and Andrejczuk, Andrzej and Meents, Alke and Burkhardt, Anja and Pennicard, David and Huang, Xiaojing and Yan, Hanfei and Nazaretski, Evgeny and Chu, Yong S. and Hamm, Christian E.},
abstractNote = {Multilayer Laue lenses are volume diffraction elements for the efficient focusing of X-rays. With a new manufacturing technique that we introduced, it is possible to fabricate lenses of sufficiently high numerical aperture (NA) to achieve focal spot sizes below 10 nm. The alternating layers of the materials that form the lens must span a broad range of thicknesses on the nanometer scale to achieve the necessary range of X-ray deflection angles required to achieve a high NA. This poses a challenge to both the accuracy of the deposition process and the control of the materials properties, which often vary with layer thickness. We introduced a new pair of materials—tungsten carbide and silicon carbide—to prepare layered structures with smooth and sharp interfaces and with no material phase transitions that hampered the manufacture of previous lenses. Using a pair of multilayer Laue lenses (MLLs) fabricated from this system, we achieved a two-dimensional focus of 8.4 × 6.8 nm2 at a photon energy of 16.3 keV with high diffraction efficiency and demonstrated scanning-based imaging of samples with a resolution well below 10 nm. The high NA also allowed projection holographic imaging with strong phase contrast over a large range of magnifications. Furthermore, an error analysis indicates the possibility of achieving 1 nm focusing.},
doi = {10.1038/lsa.2017.162},
journal = {Light, Science & Applications},
number = 3,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses
    text, January 2017

    • Bajt, Saša; Prasciolu, Mauro; Fleckenstein, Holger
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2017-12451

    Small D-Spacing WC/SiC Multilayers for Future Hard X-Ray Telescope Designs
    journal, June 2006

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    An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in X-ray diffraction microscopy
    journal, March 2009

    • Howells, M. R.; Beetz, T.; Chapman, H. N.
    • Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, Vol. 170, Issue 1-3
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.elspec.2008.10.008

    Ultra-short-period WC/SiC multilayer coatings for x-ray applications
    journal, May 2013

    • Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Pivovaroff, Mike J.; Soufli, Regina
    • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 710
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2012.10.066

    Achromatic Fresnel optics for wideband extreme-ultraviolet and X-ray imaging
    journal, July 2003

    • Wang, Yuxin; Yun, Wenbing; Jacobsen, Chris
    • Nature, Vol. 424, Issue 6944, p. 50-53
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature01756

    Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics
    journal, March 2017

    • Seiboth, Frank; Schropp, Andreas; Scholz, Maria
    • Nature Communications, Vol. 8, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14623

    11 nm hard X-ray focus from a large-aperture multilayer Laue lens
    journal, December 2013

    • Huang, Xiaojing; Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny
    • Scientific Reports, Vol. 3, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/srep03562

    High numerical aperture multilayer Laue lenses
    journal, June 2015

    • Morgan, Andrew J.; Prasciolu, Mauro; Andrejczuk, Andrzej
    • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/srep09892

    Imaging Shock Waves in Diamond with Both High Temporal and Spatial Resolution at an XFEL
    journal, June 2015

    • Schropp, Andreas; Hoppe, Robert; Meier, Vivienne
    • Scientific Reports, Vol. 5, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1038/srep11089

    Simultaneous phase and amplitude extraction from a single defocused image of a homogeneous object
    journal, April 2002


    Hard x‐ray sputtered‐sliced phase zone plates
    journal, February 1994

    • Bionta, Richard M.; Skulina, Kenneth M.; Weinberg, Jonathan
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 64, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.110968

    Applications of a CCD detector in scanning transmission x‐ray microscope
    journal, February 1995

    • Chapman, Henry N.; Jacobsen, Chris; Williams, Shawn
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 66, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1145967

    Investigation of the amorphous-to-crystalline transition in Mo/Si multilayers
    journal, July 2001

    • Bajt, Saša; Stearns, Daniel G.; Kearney, Patrick A.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 90, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1381559

    A Phase Odyssey
    journal, August 2001

    • Nugent, Keith A.; Paganin, David; Gureyev, Tim E.
    • Physics Today, Vol. 54, Issue 8
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1404846

    Microbeam of 100 keV x ray with a sputtered-sliced Fresnel zone plate
    journal, December 2003

    • Kamijo, Nagao; Suzuki, Yoshio; Takano, Hidekazu
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 74, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1614882

    High-efficiency diffractive x-ray optics from sectioned multilayers
    journal, April 2005

    • Kang, H. C.; Stephenson, G. B.; Liu, C.
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 86, Issue 15
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1897061

    Depth-graded multilayers for application in transmission geometry as linear zone plates
    journal, December 2005

    • Liu, Chian; Conley, R.; Macrander, A. T.
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 98, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.2138378

    Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens
    journal, June 2008

    • Kang, Hyon Chol; Yan, Hanfei; Winarski, Robert P.
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, Issue 22
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.2912503

    Design and performance of a scanning ptychography microscope
    journal, March 2014

    • Nazaretski, E.; Huang, X.; Yan, H.
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 85, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4868968

    One dimensional focusing with high numerical aperture multilayer Laue lens
    conference, January 2016

    • Bajt, Saša; Prasciolu, Mauro; Morgan, Andrew J.
    • XRM 2014: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on X-Ray Microscopy, AIP Conference Proceedings
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4937543

    Multilayer Laue Lens: A Brief History and Current Status
    journal, July 2016


    Hard x-ray nanofocusing by multilayer Laue lenses
    journal, June 2014


    Stress, microstructure, and stability of Mo/Si, W/Si, and Mo/C multilayer films
    journal, May 2000

    • Windt, David L.
    • Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, Vol. 18, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1116/1.582287

    High-Resolution Scanning X-ray Diffraction Microscopy
    journal, July 2008


    The Race to X-ray Microbeam and Nanobeam Science
    journal, December 2011


    Molecular Microscopy: Fundamental Limitations
    journal, December 1970


    Status of the crystallography beamlines at PETRA III
    journal, March 2016

    • Burkhardt, Anja; Pakendorf, Tim; Reime, Bernd
    • The European Physical Journal Plus, Vol. 131, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1140/epjp/i2016-16056-0

    Multilayer Laue lenses at high X-ray energies: performance and applications
    journal, January 2019

    • Murray, Kevin T.; Pedersen, Anders F.; Mohacsi, Istvan
    • Optics Express, Vol. 27, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1364/oe.27.007120

    The ESRF dark-field x-ray microscope at ID06
    journal, December 2019


    Multilayer Laue lenses at high X-ray energies: performance and applications
    journal, January 2019

    • Murray, Kevin T.; Pedersen, Anders F.; Mohacsi, Istvan
    • Optics Express, Vol. 27, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1364/oe.27.007120