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Title: X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses

Multilayer Laue lenses are volume diffraction elements for the efficient focusing of X-rays. With a new manufacturing technique that we introduced, it is possible to fabricate lenses of sufficiently high numerical aperture (NA) to achieve focal spot sizes below 10 nm. The alternating layers of the materials that form the lens must span a broad range of thicknesses on the nanometer scale to achieve the necessary range of X-ray deflection angles required to achieve a high NA. This poses a challenge to both the accuracy of the deposition process and the control of the materials properties, which often vary with layer thickness. We introduced a new pair of materials—tungsten carbide and silicon carbide—to prepare layered structures with smooth and sharp interfaces and with no material phase transitions that hampered the manufacture of previous lenses. Using a pair of multilayer Laue lenses (MLLs) fabricated from this system, we achieved a two-dimensional focus of 8.4 × 6.8 nm 2 at a photon energy of 16.3 keV with high diffraction efficiency and demonstrated scanning-based imaging of samples with a resolution well below 10 nm. The high NA also allowed projection holographic imaging with strong phase contrast over a large range of magnifications. Furthermore,more » an error analysis indicates the possibility of achieving 1 nm focusing.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ; ORCiD logo [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [5] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] more »;  [1] ;  [6] ;  [6] ;  [6] ;  [6] ;  [7] « less
  1. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  2. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Hamburg (Germany)
  3. National Science Foundation BioXFEL Science and Technology Center, Buffalo, NY (United States)
  4. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
  5. Univ. of Bialystok, Bialystok (Poland)
  6. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  7. Alfred-Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven (Germany)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
BNL-205711-2018-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 2047-7538
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Light, Science & Applications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2047-7538
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; multilayer Laue lenses; multilayers; ptychography; X-ray holography; X-ray optics
OSTI Identifier:
1439298

Bajt, Sasa, Prasciolu, Mauro, Fleckenstein, Holger, Domaracky, Martin, Chapman, Henry N., Morgan, Andrew J., Yefanov, Oleksandr, Messerschmidt, Marc, Du, Yang, Murray, Kevin T., Mariani, Valerio, Kuhn, Manuela, Aplin, Steven, Pande, Kanupriya, Villanueva-Perez, Pablo, Stachnik, Karolina, Chen, Joe P. J., Andrejczuk, Andrzej, Meents, Alke, Burkhardt, Anja, Pennicard, David, Huang, Xiaojing, Yan, Hanfei, Nazaretski, Evgeny, Chu, Yong S., and Hamm, Christian E.. X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1038/lsa.2017.162.
Bajt, Sasa, Prasciolu, Mauro, Fleckenstein, Holger, Domaracky, Martin, Chapman, Henry N., Morgan, Andrew J., Yefanov, Oleksandr, Messerschmidt, Marc, Du, Yang, Murray, Kevin T., Mariani, Valerio, Kuhn, Manuela, Aplin, Steven, Pande, Kanupriya, Villanueva-Perez, Pablo, Stachnik, Karolina, Chen, Joe P. J., Andrejczuk, Andrzej, Meents, Alke, Burkhardt, Anja, Pennicard, David, Huang, Xiaojing, Yan, Hanfei, Nazaretski, Evgeny, Chu, Yong S., & Hamm, Christian E.. X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses. United States. doi:10.1038/lsa.2017.162.
Bajt, Sasa, Prasciolu, Mauro, Fleckenstein, Holger, Domaracky, Martin, Chapman, Henry N., Morgan, Andrew J., Yefanov, Oleksandr, Messerschmidt, Marc, Du, Yang, Murray, Kevin T., Mariani, Valerio, Kuhn, Manuela, Aplin, Steven, Pande, Kanupriya, Villanueva-Perez, Pablo, Stachnik, Karolina, Chen, Joe P. J., Andrejczuk, Andrzej, Meents, Alke, Burkhardt, Anja, Pennicard, David, Huang, Xiaojing, Yan, Hanfei, Nazaretski, Evgeny, Chu, Yong S., and Hamm, Christian E.. 2018. "X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses". United States. doi:10.1038/lsa.2017.162. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1439298.
@article{osti_1439298,
title = {X-ray focusing with efficient high-NA multilayer Laue lenses},
author = {Bajt, Sasa and Prasciolu, Mauro and Fleckenstein, Holger and Domaracky, Martin and Chapman, Henry N. and Morgan, Andrew J. and Yefanov, Oleksandr and Messerschmidt, Marc and Du, Yang and Murray, Kevin T. and Mariani, Valerio and Kuhn, Manuela and Aplin, Steven and Pande, Kanupriya and Villanueva-Perez, Pablo and Stachnik, Karolina and Chen, Joe P. J. and Andrejczuk, Andrzej and Meents, Alke and Burkhardt, Anja and Pennicard, David and Huang, Xiaojing and Yan, Hanfei and Nazaretski, Evgeny and Chu, Yong S. and Hamm, Christian E.},
abstractNote = {Multilayer Laue lenses are volume diffraction elements for the efficient focusing of X-rays. With a new manufacturing technique that we introduced, it is possible to fabricate lenses of sufficiently high numerical aperture (NA) to achieve focal spot sizes below 10 nm. The alternating layers of the materials that form the lens must span a broad range of thicknesses on the nanometer scale to achieve the necessary range of X-ray deflection angles required to achieve a high NA. This poses a challenge to both the accuracy of the deposition process and the control of the materials properties, which often vary with layer thickness. We introduced a new pair of materials—tungsten carbide and silicon carbide—to prepare layered structures with smooth and sharp interfaces and with no material phase transitions that hampered the manufacture of previous lenses. Using a pair of multilayer Laue lenses (MLLs) fabricated from this system, we achieved a two-dimensional focus of 8.4 × 6.8 nm2 at a photon energy of 16.3 keV with high diffraction efficiency and demonstrated scanning-based imaging of samples with a resolution well below 10 nm. The high NA also allowed projection holographic imaging with strong phase contrast over a large range of magnifications. Furthermore, an error analysis indicates the possibility of achieving 1 nm focusing.},
doi = {10.1038/lsa.2017.162},
journal = {Light, Science & Applications},
number = 3,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}