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Title: Multistage coupling of independent laser-plasma accelerators

Abstract

Laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) are capable of accelerating charged particles to very high energies in very compact structures. In theory, therefore, they offer advantages over conventional, large-scale particle accelerators. However, the energy gain in a single-stage LPA can be limited by laser diffraction, dephasing, electron-beam loading and laser-energy depletion. The problem of laser diffraction can be addressed by using laser-pulse guiding and preformed plasma waveguides to maintain the required laser intensity over distances of many Rayleigh lengths; dephasing can be mitigated by longitudinal tailoring of the plasma density; and beam loading can be controlled by proper shaping of the electron beam. To increase the beam energy further, it is necessary to tackle the problem of the depletion of laser energy, by sequencing the accelerator into stages, each powered by a separate laser pulse. In this work, we present results from an experiment that demonstrates such staging. Two LPA stages were coupled over a short distance (as is needed to preserve the average acceleration gradient) by a plasma mirror. Stable electron beams from a first LPA were focused to a twenty-micrometre radius-by a discharge capillary-based active plasma lens-into a second LPA, such that the beams interacted with the wakefield excited by amore » separate laser. Staged acceleration by the wakefield of the second stage is detected via an energy gain of 100 megaelectronvolts for a subset of the electron beam. Changing the arrival time of the electron beam with respect to the second-stage laser pulse allowed us to reconstruct the temporal wakefield structure and to determine the plasma density. Our results indicate that the fundamental limitation to energy gain presented by laser depletion can be overcome by using staged acceleration, suggesting a way of reaching the electron energies required for collider applications.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [3]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eindhoven Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)
  3. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1439195
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; 0917687; 0935197; PHY-1415596
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature (London)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Nature (London); Journal Volume: 530; Journal Issue: 7589; Related Information: © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.; Journal ID: ISSN 0028-0836
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Steinke, S., van Tilborg, J., Benedetti, C., Geddes, C. G. R., Schroeder, C. B., Daniels, J., Swanson, K. K., Gonsalves, A. J., Nakamura, K., Matlis, N. H., Shaw, B. H., Esarey, E., and Leemans, W. P. Multistage coupling of independent laser-plasma accelerators. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1038/nature16525.
Steinke, S., van Tilborg, J., Benedetti, C., Geddes, C. G. R., Schroeder, C. B., Daniels, J., Swanson, K. K., Gonsalves, A. J., Nakamura, K., Matlis, N. H., Shaw, B. H., Esarey, E., & Leemans, W. P. Multistage coupling of independent laser-plasma accelerators. United States. doi:10.1038/nature16525.
Steinke, S., van Tilborg, J., Benedetti, C., Geddes, C. G. R., Schroeder, C. B., Daniels, J., Swanson, K. K., Gonsalves, A. J., Nakamura, K., Matlis, N. H., Shaw, B. H., Esarey, E., and Leemans, W. P. Mon . "Multistage coupling of independent laser-plasma accelerators". United States. doi:10.1038/nature16525. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1439195.
@article{osti_1439195,
title = {Multistage coupling of independent laser-plasma accelerators},
author = {Steinke, S. and van Tilborg, J. and Benedetti, C. and Geddes, C. G. R. and Schroeder, C. B. and Daniels, J. and Swanson, K. K. and Gonsalves, A. J. and Nakamura, K. and Matlis, N. H. and Shaw, B. H. and Esarey, E. and Leemans, W. P.},
abstractNote = {Laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) are capable of accelerating charged particles to very high energies in very compact structures. In theory, therefore, they offer advantages over conventional, large-scale particle accelerators. However, the energy gain in a single-stage LPA can be limited by laser diffraction, dephasing, electron-beam loading and laser-energy depletion. The problem of laser diffraction can be addressed by using laser-pulse guiding and preformed plasma waveguides to maintain the required laser intensity over distances of many Rayleigh lengths; dephasing can be mitigated by longitudinal tailoring of the plasma density; and beam loading can be controlled by proper shaping of the electron beam. To increase the beam energy further, it is necessary to tackle the problem of the depletion of laser energy, by sequencing the accelerator into stages, each powered by a separate laser pulse. In this work, we present results from an experiment that demonstrates such staging. Two LPA stages were coupled over a short distance (as is needed to preserve the average acceleration gradient) by a plasma mirror. Stable electron beams from a first LPA were focused to a twenty-micrometre radius-by a discharge capillary-based active plasma lens-into a second LPA, such that the beams interacted with the wakefield excited by a separate laser. Staged acceleration by the wakefield of the second stage is detected via an energy gain of 100 megaelectronvolts for a subset of the electron beam. Changing the arrival time of the electron beam with respect to the second-stage laser pulse allowed us to reconstruct the temporal wakefield structure and to determine the plasma density. Our results indicate that the fundamental limitation to energy gain presented by laser depletion can be overcome by using staged acceleration, suggesting a way of reaching the electron energies required for collider applications.},
doi = {10.1038/nature16525},
journal = {Nature (London)},
number = 7589,
volume = 530,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {2}
}

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