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Title: A general method to improve 3D-printability and inter-layer adhesion in lignin-based composites

Here, we report the utilization of a melt-stable lignin waste-stream from biorefineries as a renewable feedstock, with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) polymer to synthesize a renewable matrix having excellent 3D-printability. While the initial low melt viscosity of the dispersed lignin phase induces local thermo-rheological relaxation facilitating the composite's melt flow, thermal crosslinking in both lignin and rubber phases as well as at the lignin-rubber interface decreases the molecular mobility. Consequently, interfacial diffusion and the resulting adhesion between deposited layers is decreased. However, addition of 10 wt.% of discontinuous carbon fibers (CFs) within the green composites not only significantly enhances the material performance but also lowers the degree of chemical crosslinking formed in the matrix during melt-phase synthesis. Furthermore, abundant functional groups including hydroxyl (from lignin) and nitrile (from rubber and ABS) allow combinations of hydrogen bonded structures where CFs play a critical bridging role between the deposited layers. As a result, a highly interfused printed structure with 100% improved inter-layer adhesion strength was obtained. This research offers a route toward utilizing lignin for replacement of petroleum-based thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing and methods to enhance printability of the materials with exceptional mechanical performance.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Materials Today
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 12; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 2352-9407
Publisher:
Elsevier
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 3D-printing; Weld energy; Lignin composites; Carbon fibers; Inter-layer diffusion
OSTI Identifier:
1439149

Nguyen, Ngoc A., Bowland, Christopher C., and Naskar, Amit K.. A general method to improve 3D-printability and inter-layer adhesion in lignin-based composites. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1016/j.apmt.2018.03.009.
Nguyen, Ngoc A., Bowland, Christopher C., & Naskar, Amit K.. A general method to improve 3D-printability and inter-layer adhesion in lignin-based composites. United States. doi:10.1016/j.apmt.2018.03.009.
Nguyen, Ngoc A., Bowland, Christopher C., and Naskar, Amit K.. 2018. "A general method to improve 3D-printability and inter-layer adhesion in lignin-based composites". United States. doi:10.1016/j.apmt.2018.03.009. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1439149.
@article{osti_1439149,
title = {A general method to improve 3D-printability and inter-layer adhesion in lignin-based composites},
author = {Nguyen, Ngoc A. and Bowland, Christopher C. and Naskar, Amit K.},
abstractNote = {Here, we report the utilization of a melt-stable lignin waste-stream from biorefineries as a renewable feedstock, with acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) polymer to synthesize a renewable matrix having excellent 3D-printability. While the initial low melt viscosity of the dispersed lignin phase induces local thermo-rheological relaxation facilitating the composite's melt flow, thermal crosslinking in both lignin and rubber phases as well as at the lignin-rubber interface decreases the molecular mobility. Consequently, interfacial diffusion and the resulting adhesion between deposited layers is decreased. However, addition of 10 wt.% of discontinuous carbon fibers (CFs) within the green composites not only significantly enhances the material performance but also lowers the degree of chemical crosslinking formed in the matrix during melt-phase synthesis. Furthermore, abundant functional groups including hydroxyl (from lignin) and nitrile (from rubber and ABS) allow combinations of hydrogen bonded structures where CFs play a critical bridging role between the deposited layers. As a result, a highly interfused printed structure with 100% improved inter-layer adhesion strength was obtained. This research offers a route toward utilizing lignin for replacement of petroleum-based thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing and methods to enhance printability of the materials with exceptional mechanical performance.},
doi = {10.1016/j.apmt.2018.03.009},
journal = {Applied Materials Today},
number = C,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}