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Title: Giant tunneling magnetoresistance in spin-filter van der Waals heterostructures

Abstract

Magnetic multilayer devices that exploit magnetoresistance are the backbone of magnetic sensing and data storage technologies. Here, we report multiple-spin-filter magnetic tunnel junctions (sf-MTJs) based on van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures in which atomically thin chromium triiodide (CrI3) acts as a spin-filter tunnel barrier sandwiched between graphene contacts. We demonstrate tunneling magnetoresistance which is drastically enhanced with increasing CrI3 layer thickness, reaching a record 19,000% for magnetic multilayer structures using four-layer sf-MTJs at low temperatures. Using magnetic circular dichroism measurements, we attribute these effects to the intrinsic layer-by-layer antiferromagnetic ordering of the atomically thin CrI3. In conclusion, our work reveals the possibility to push magnetic information storage to the atomically thin limit and highlights CrI3 as a superlative magnetic tunnel barrier for vdW heterostructure spintronic devices.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [4]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [1]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)
  3. Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
  4. National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki (Japan)
  5. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1439141
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 360; Journal Issue: 6394; Journal ID: ISSN 0036-8075
Publisher:
AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Song, Tiancheng, Cai, Xinghan, Tu, Matisse Wei-Yuan, Zhang, Xiaoou, Huang, Bevin, Wilson, Nathan P., Seyler, Kyle L., Zhu, Lin, Taniguchi, Takashi, Watanabe, Kenji, McGuire, Michael A., Cobden, David H., Xiao, Di, Yao, Wang, and Xu, Xiaodong. Giant tunneling magnetoresistance in spin-filter van der Waals heterostructures. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1126/science.aar4851.
Song, Tiancheng, Cai, Xinghan, Tu, Matisse Wei-Yuan, Zhang, Xiaoou, Huang, Bevin, Wilson, Nathan P., Seyler, Kyle L., Zhu, Lin, Taniguchi, Takashi, Watanabe, Kenji, McGuire, Michael A., Cobden, David H., Xiao, Di, Yao, Wang, & Xu, Xiaodong. Giant tunneling magnetoresistance in spin-filter van der Waals heterostructures. United States. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aar4851
Song, Tiancheng, Cai, Xinghan, Tu, Matisse Wei-Yuan, Zhang, Xiaoou, Huang, Bevin, Wilson, Nathan P., Seyler, Kyle L., Zhu, Lin, Taniguchi, Takashi, Watanabe, Kenji, McGuire, Michael A., Cobden, David H., Xiao, Di, Yao, Wang, and Xu, Xiaodong. Fri . "Giant tunneling magnetoresistance in spin-filter van der Waals heterostructures". United States. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aar4851. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1439141.
@article{osti_1439141,
title = {Giant tunneling magnetoresistance in spin-filter van der Waals heterostructures},
author = {Song, Tiancheng and Cai, Xinghan and Tu, Matisse Wei-Yuan and Zhang, Xiaoou and Huang, Bevin and Wilson, Nathan P. and Seyler, Kyle L. and Zhu, Lin and Taniguchi, Takashi and Watanabe, Kenji and McGuire, Michael A. and Cobden, David H. and Xiao, Di and Yao, Wang and Xu, Xiaodong},
abstractNote = {Magnetic multilayer devices that exploit magnetoresistance are the backbone of magnetic sensing and data storage technologies. Here, we report multiple-spin-filter magnetic tunnel junctions (sf-MTJs) based on van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures in which atomically thin chromium triiodide (CrI3) acts as a spin-filter tunnel barrier sandwiched between graphene contacts. We demonstrate tunneling magnetoresistance which is drastically enhanced with increasing CrI3 layer thickness, reaching a record 19,000% for magnetic multilayer structures using four-layer sf-MTJs at low temperatures. Using magnetic circular dichroism measurements, we attribute these effects to the intrinsic layer-by-layer antiferromagnetic ordering of the atomically thin CrI3. In conclusion, our work reveals the possibility to push magnetic information storage to the atomically thin limit and highlights CrI3 as a superlative magnetic tunnel barrier for vdW heterostructure spintronic devices.},
doi = {10.1126/science.aar4851},
journal = {Science},
number = 6394,
volume = 360,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {6}
}

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journal, December 2019

  • Xie, Huanhuan; Qie, Yu; Muhammad, Imran
  • Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 32, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-648x/ab5ca4

Diversity of structural and electronic properties of P –AuBr of different dimensions
journal, March 2019


Magnetic Proximity Effect in a van der Waals Moiré Superlattice
journal, August 2019


Magnonic quantum spin Hall state in the zigzag and stripe phases of the antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice
journal, May 2018


Tunable band gap and enhanced ferromagnetism by surface adsorption in monolayer Cr 2 Ge 2 Te 6
journal, June 2019


Spin-glass behavior and vacancy order in van der Waals layered β MoCl 4
journal, July 2018


Magnon Transport in Quasi-Two-Dimensional van der Waals Antiferromagnets
journal, February 2019


Probing magnetism in 2D materials at the nanoscale with single-spin microscopy
journal, April 2019


Nonvolatile Electrical Control and Heterointerface‐Induced Half‐Metallicity of 2D Ferromagnets
journal, April 2019

  • Zhao, Yinghe; Zhang, Jun‐Jie; Yuan, Shijun
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 24
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201901420

Van der Waals Heterostructures for High‐Performance Device Applications: Challenges and Opportunities
journal, October 2019


Recent Advances in Quantum Effects of 2D Materials
journal, April 2019

  • Yi, Ya; Chen, Zhanxu; Yu, Xue‐Feng
  • Advanced Quantum Technologies, Vol. 2, Issue 5-6
  • DOI: 10.1002/qute.201800111

Giant nonreciprocal second-harmonic generation from antiferromagnetic bilayer CrI3
journal, July 2019


Two-dimensional van der Waals spinterfaces and magnetic-interfaces
journal, March 2020

  • Dayen, Jean-Francois; Ray, Soumya J.; Karis, Olof
  • Applied Physics Reviews, Vol. 7, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.5112171

Evolution of interlayer and intralayer magnetism in three atomically thin chromium trihalides
journal, May 2019

  • Kim, Hyun Ho; Yang, Bowen; Li, Siwen
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 116, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1902100116

Recent progress of spintronics based on emerging 2D materials: CrI 3 and Xenes
journal, December 2019


Magneto‐Memristive Switching in a 2D Layer Antiferromagnet
journal, October 2019


Magnetism in two-dimensional van der Waals materials
journal, October 2018


Very large tunneling magnetoresistance in layered magnetic semiconductor CrI3
text, January 2018