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Title: Monitoring and Modeling the Rapid Evolution of Earth's Newest Volcanic Island: Hunga Tonga Hunga Ha'apai (Tonga) Using High Spatial Resolution Satellite Observations

We have monitored a newly erupted volcanic island in the Kingdom of Tonga, unofficially known as Hunga Tonga Hunga Ha'apai, by means of relatively frequent high spatial resolution (~50 cm) satellite observations. The new ~1.8 km 2 island formed as a tuff cone over the course of a month-long hydromagmatic eruption in early 2015 in the Tonga-Kermadec volcanic arc. Such ash-dominated eruptions usually produce fragile subaerial landscapes that wash away rapidly due to marine erosion, as occurred nearby in 2009. Our measured rates of erosion are ~0.00256 km 3/year from derived digital topographic models. Preliminary measurements of the topographic expression of the primary tuff cone over ~30 months suggest a lifetime of ~19 years (and potentially up to 42 years). The ability to measure details of a young island's landscape evolution using satellite remote sensing has not previously been possible at these spatial and temporal resolutions.
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ; ORCiD logo [4] ; ORCiD logo [5]
  1. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)
  2. Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States)
  3. Canadian Space Agency, Saint‐Hubert, Quebec (Canada)
  4. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
  5. Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center (ESSIC/UMD), College Park, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-131017
Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Geophysical Research Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 45; Journal Issue: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 0094-8276
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; surtseyan eruption; Tonga; Hunga Tonga Hunga Ha'apai; very high-resolution satellite imagery; volcanism; remote sensing
OSTI Identifier:
1438984

Garvin, J. B., Slayback, D. A., Ferrini, V., Frawley, J., Giguere, C., Asrar, G. R., and Andersen, K.. Monitoring and Modeling the Rapid Evolution of Earth's Newest Volcanic Island: Hunga Tonga Hunga Ha'apai (Tonga) Using High Spatial Resolution Satellite Observations. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1002/2017GL076621.
Garvin, J. B., Slayback, D. A., Ferrini, V., Frawley, J., Giguere, C., Asrar, G. R., & Andersen, K.. Monitoring and Modeling the Rapid Evolution of Earth's Newest Volcanic Island: Hunga Tonga Hunga Ha'apai (Tonga) Using High Spatial Resolution Satellite Observations. United States. doi:10.1002/2017GL076621.
Garvin, J. B., Slayback, D. A., Ferrini, V., Frawley, J., Giguere, C., Asrar, G. R., and Andersen, K.. 2018. "Monitoring and Modeling the Rapid Evolution of Earth's Newest Volcanic Island: Hunga Tonga Hunga Ha'apai (Tonga) Using High Spatial Resolution Satellite Observations". United States. doi:10.1002/2017GL076621. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1438984.
@article{osti_1438984,
title = {Monitoring and Modeling the Rapid Evolution of Earth's Newest Volcanic Island: Hunga Tonga Hunga Ha'apai (Tonga) Using High Spatial Resolution Satellite Observations},
author = {Garvin, J. B. and Slayback, D. A. and Ferrini, V. and Frawley, J. and Giguere, C. and Asrar, G. R. and Andersen, K.},
abstractNote = {We have monitored a newly erupted volcanic island in the Kingdom of Tonga, unofficially known as Hunga Tonga Hunga Ha'apai, by means of relatively frequent high spatial resolution (~50 cm) satellite observations. The new ~1.8 km2 island formed as a tuff cone over the course of a month-long hydromagmatic eruption in early 2015 in the Tonga-Kermadec volcanic arc. Such ash-dominated eruptions usually produce fragile subaerial landscapes that wash away rapidly due to marine erosion, as occurred nearby in 2009. Our measured rates of erosion are ~0.00256 km3/year from derived digital topographic models. Preliminary measurements of the topographic expression of the primary tuff cone over ~30 months suggest a lifetime of ~19 years (and potentially up to 42 years). The ability to measure details of a young island's landscape evolution using satellite remote sensing has not previously been possible at these spatial and temporal resolutions.},
doi = {10.1002/2017GL076621},
journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
number = 8,
volume = 45,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}