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Title: An instrument for in situ time-resolved X-ray imaging and diffraction of laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

Abstract

In situ X-ray-based measurements of the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing process produce unique data for model validation and improved process understanding. Synchrotron X-ray imaging and diffraction provide high resolution, bulk sensitive information with sufficient sampling rates to probe melt pool dynamics as well as phase and microstructure evolution. Here, we describe a laboratory-scale LPBF test bed designed to accommodate diffraction and imaging experiments at a synchrotron X-ray source during LPBF operation. We also present experimental results using Ti-6Al-4V, a widely used aerospace alloy, as a model system. Both imaging and diffraction experiments were carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. Melt pool dynamics were imaged at frame rates up to 4 kHz with a ~1.1 μm effective pixel size and revealed the formation of keyhole pores along the melt track due to vapor recoil forces. Diffraction experiments at sampling rates of 1 kHz captured phase evolution and lattice contraction during the rapid cooling present in LPBF within a ~50 × 100 μm area. In conclusion, we also discuss the utility of these measurements for model validation and process improvement.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  3. Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1438740
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1435482
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-739736
Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748; TRN: US1900507
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344; CPA 32035; CPA 32037; CPA 32038
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Review of Scientific Instruments
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 89; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 0034-6748
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 42 ENGINEERING; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION

Citation Formats

Calta, Nicholas P., Wang, Jenny, Kiss, Andrew M., Martin, Aiden A., Depond, Philip J., Guss, Gabriel M., Thampy, Vivek, Fong, Anthony Y., Weker, Johanna Nelson, Stone, Kevin H., Tassone, Christopher J., Kramer, Matthew J., Toney, Michael F., Van Buuren, Anthony, and Matthews, Manyalibo J. An instrument for in situ time-resolved X-ray imaging and diffraction of laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5017236.
Calta, Nicholas P., Wang, Jenny, Kiss, Andrew M., Martin, Aiden A., Depond, Philip J., Guss, Gabriel M., Thampy, Vivek, Fong, Anthony Y., Weker, Johanna Nelson, Stone, Kevin H., Tassone, Christopher J., Kramer, Matthew J., Toney, Michael F., Van Buuren, Anthony, & Matthews, Manyalibo J. An instrument for in situ time-resolved X-ray imaging and diffraction of laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5017236.
Calta, Nicholas P., Wang, Jenny, Kiss, Andrew M., Martin, Aiden A., Depond, Philip J., Guss, Gabriel M., Thampy, Vivek, Fong, Anthony Y., Weker, Johanna Nelson, Stone, Kevin H., Tassone, Christopher J., Kramer, Matthew J., Toney, Michael F., Van Buuren, Anthony, and Matthews, Manyalibo J. Tue . "An instrument for in situ time-resolved X-ray imaging and diffraction of laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5017236. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1438740.
@article{osti_1438740,
title = {An instrument for in situ time-resolved X-ray imaging and diffraction of laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes},
author = {Calta, Nicholas P. and Wang, Jenny and Kiss, Andrew M. and Martin, Aiden A. and Depond, Philip J. and Guss, Gabriel M. and Thampy, Vivek and Fong, Anthony Y. and Weker, Johanna Nelson and Stone, Kevin H. and Tassone, Christopher J. and Kramer, Matthew J. and Toney, Michael F. and Van Buuren, Anthony and Matthews, Manyalibo J.},
abstractNote = {In situ X-ray-based measurements of the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing process produce unique data for model validation and improved process understanding. Synchrotron X-ray imaging and diffraction provide high resolution, bulk sensitive information with sufficient sampling rates to probe melt pool dynamics as well as phase and microstructure evolution. Here, we describe a laboratory-scale LPBF test bed designed to accommodate diffraction and imaging experiments at a synchrotron X-ray source during LPBF operation. We also present experimental results using Ti-6Al-4V, a widely used aerospace alloy, as a model system. Both imaging and diffraction experiments were carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. Melt pool dynamics were imaged at frame rates up to 4 kHz with a ~1.1 μm effective pixel size and revealed the formation of keyhole pores along the melt track due to vapor recoil forces. Diffraction experiments at sampling rates of 1 kHz captured phase evolution and lattice contraction during the rapid cooling present in LPBF within a ~50 × 100 μm area. In conclusion, we also discuss the utility of these measurements for model validation and process improvement.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5017236},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 5,
volume = 89,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}

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