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Title: The GFDL Global Atmosphere and Land Model AM4.0/LM4.0: 2. Model Description, Sensitivity Studies, and Tuning Strategies

Here, in Part 2 of this two–part paper, documentation is provided of key aspects of a version of the AM4.0/LM4.0 atmosphere/land model that will serve as a base for a new set of climate and Earth system models (CM4 and ESM4) under development at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL). The quality of the simulation in AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) mode has been provided in Part 1. Part 2 provides documentation of key components and some sensitivities to choices of model formulation and values of parameters, highlighting the convection parameterization and orographic gravity wave drag. The approach taken to tune the model's clouds to observations is a particular focal point. Care is taken to describe the extent to which aerosol effective forcing and Cess sensitivity have been tuned through the model development process, both of which are relevant to the ability of the model to simulate the evolution of temperatures over the last century when coupled to an ocean model.
Authors:
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  1. GFDL/NOAA, Princeton, NJ (United States)
  2. GFDL/NOAA, Princeton, NJ (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  3. UCAR/GFDL, Princeton, NJ (United States)
  4. Princeton Univ./GFDL, Princeton, NJ (United States)
  5. U.S. Geological Survey, Princeton, NJ (United States)
  6. Engility Corporation/GFDL, Princeton, NJ (United States)
  7. GFDL/NOAA, Princeton, NJ (United States); U.S. Geological Survey, Princeton, NJ (United States)
  8. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-736763
Journal ID: ISSN 1942-2466
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1942-2466
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union (AGU)
Research Org:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 58 GEOSCIENCES
OSTI Identifier:
1438739