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Title: Zinc-Nucleated D 2 and H 2 Crystal Formation from Their Liquids

Abstract

Calorimetric measurements at University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics of D 2 crystallization from the melt indicate that zinc can act as a heterogeneous nucleation seed with suppressed supercooling. We further studied in this paper this effect for a variety of zinc substrates using the optical-access cryogenic sample cell at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Small supercoolings are observed, some as low as 5 mK, but results depend on the zinc history and sample preparation. In general, thin samples prepared by physical vapor deposition were not effective in nucleating crystal formation. Larger (several-millimeter) granules showed greater supercooling suppression, depending on surface modification and granule size. Surfaces of these granules are morphologically varied and not uniform. Scanning electron microscope images were not able to correlate any particular surface feature with enhanced nucleation. Finally, application of classical nucleation theory to the observed variation of supercooling level with granule size is consistent with nucleation features with sizes <100 nm and with wetting angles of a few degrees.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3]
  1. Schafer Livermore Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schafer Livermore Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1438674
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-737464
Journal ID: ISSN 1536-1055; TRN: US1900481
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344; NA0001369
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Fusion Science and Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 70; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1536-1055
Publisher:
American Nuclear Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; cryogenic hydrogen; crystal formation; zinc substrates

Citation Formats

Bernat, T. P., Petta, N., Kozioziemski, B., Shin, S. J., and Harding, D. R. Zinc-Nucleated D2 and H2 Crystal Formation from Their Liquids. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.13182/FST15-223.
Bernat, T. P., Petta, N., Kozioziemski, B., Shin, S. J., & Harding, D. R. Zinc-Nucleated D2 and H2 Crystal Formation from Their Liquids. United States. doi:10.13182/FST15-223.
Bernat, T. P., Petta, N., Kozioziemski, B., Shin, S. J., and Harding, D. R. Thu . "Zinc-Nucleated D2 and H2 Crystal Formation from Their Liquids". United States. doi:10.13182/FST15-223. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1438674.
@article{osti_1438674,
title = {Zinc-Nucleated D2 and H2 Crystal Formation from Their Liquids},
author = {Bernat, T. P. and Petta, N. and Kozioziemski, B. and Shin, S. J. and Harding, D. R.},
abstractNote = {Calorimetric measurements at University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics of D2 crystallization from the melt indicate that zinc can act as a heterogeneous nucleation seed with suppressed supercooling. We further studied in this paper this effect for a variety of zinc substrates using the optical-access cryogenic sample cell at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Small supercoolings are observed, some as low as 5 mK, but results depend on the zinc history and sample preparation. In general, thin samples prepared by physical vapor deposition were not effective in nucleating crystal formation. Larger (several-millimeter) granules showed greater supercooling suppression, depending on surface modification and granule size. Surfaces of these granules are morphologically varied and not uniform. Scanning electron microscope images were not able to correlate any particular surface feature with enhanced nucleation. Finally, application of classical nucleation theory to the observed variation of supercooling level with granule size is consistent with nucleation features with sizes <100 nm and with wetting angles of a few degrees.},
doi = {10.13182/FST15-223},
journal = {Fusion Science and Technology},
number = 2,
volume = 70,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {9}
}

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