skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Composition and automated crystal orientation mapping of rapid solidification products in hypoeutectic Al-4 at.%Cu alloys

Abstract

Rapid solidification can produce metastable phases and unusual microstructure modifications in multi-component alloys during additive manufacturing or laser beam welding. Composition and phase mapping by transmission electron microscopy have been used in this paper to characterize the morphologically distinct zones developing in hypoeutectic Al-4 at.% Cu alloy after pulsed laser melting for different crystal growth rate regimes. Deviations of the compositions of the alloy phases from equilibrium predictions and unique orientation relationships between the solidification transformation products have been determined. Specifically, for the columnar growth zone at solidification rates of 0.8 m s - 1 < v < v a = 1.8 m s - 1 , two distinct orientation relationships were established between the concomitantly forming non-equilibrium phases, supersaturated α-Al solid solution and the discontinuously distributed α-Al2Cu-based θ'-phase, which can be described as {110}θ {001}α, [001]θ [110]α and {001}θ {001}α, [100]θ [100]α. These orientation relationships permit formation of coherent interphase interfaces with low interfacial free energy. Finally, this endows a kinetic advantage to the thermodynamically less stable θ'-Al2Cu phase relative to the more stable equilibrium θ-Al2Cu phase during formation of the morphologically modified eutectic of the columnar growth zone grains, since repeated nucleation is required to establish the discontinuous distribution of θ'-Al2Cu phase.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [2]
  1. Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science; Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa), Dübendorf (Switzerland)
  2. Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science
  3. Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science; FEI Co., Hillsboro, OR (United States)
  4. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1438655
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1496396
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-735845
Journal ID: ISSN 1359-6454
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344; DMR 1105757; DMR 1607922; FWP SCW0974
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Acta Materialia
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 145; Journal ID: ISSN 1359-6454
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; rapid solidification; TEM; PED; ACOM; interface velocity; absolute stability

Citation Formats

Zweiacker, K. W., Liu, Can, Gordillo, M. A., McKeown, J. T., Campbell, G. H., and Wiezorek, J. M. K.. Composition and automated crystal orientation mapping of rapid solidification products in hypoeutectic Al-4 at.%Cu alloys. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2017.11.040.
Zweiacker, K. W., Liu, Can, Gordillo, M. A., McKeown, J. T., Campbell, G. H., & Wiezorek, J. M. K.. Composition and automated crystal orientation mapping of rapid solidification products in hypoeutectic Al-4 at.%Cu alloys. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2017.11.040
Zweiacker, K. W., Liu, Can, Gordillo, M. A., McKeown, J. T., Campbell, G. H., and Wiezorek, J. M. K.. Tue . "Composition and automated crystal orientation mapping of rapid solidification products in hypoeutectic Al-4 at.%Cu alloys". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2017.11.040. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1438655.
@article{osti_1438655,
title = {Composition and automated crystal orientation mapping of rapid solidification products in hypoeutectic Al-4 at.%Cu alloys},
author = {Zweiacker, K. W. and Liu, Can and Gordillo, M. A. and McKeown, J. T. and Campbell, G. H. and Wiezorek, J. M. K.},
abstractNote = {Rapid solidification can produce metastable phases and unusual microstructure modifications in multi-component alloys during additive manufacturing or laser beam welding. Composition and phase mapping by transmission electron microscopy have been used in this paper to characterize the morphologically distinct zones developing in hypoeutectic Al-4 at.% Cu alloy after pulsed laser melting for different crystal growth rate regimes. Deviations of the compositions of the alloy phases from equilibrium predictions and unique orientation relationships between the solidification transformation products have been determined. Specifically, for the columnar growth zone at solidification rates of 0.8 ms-1 < v <va=1.8 ms-1, two distinct orientation relationships were established between the concomitantly forming non-equilibrium phases, supersaturated α-Al solid solution and the discontinuously distributed α-Al2Cu-based θ'-phase, which can be described as {110}θ ∥ {001}α, [001]θ ∥ [110]α and {001}θ ∥ {001}α, [100]θ ∥ [100]α. These orientation relationships permit formation of coherent interphase interfaces with low interfacial free energy. Finally, this endows a kinetic advantage to the thermodynamically less stable θ'-Al2Cu phase relative to the more stable equilibrium θ-Al2Cu phase during formation of the morphologically modified eutectic of the columnar growth zone grains, since repeated nucleation is required to establish the discontinuous distribution of θ'-Al2Cu phase.},
doi = {10.1016/j.actamat.2017.11.040},
journal = {Acta Materialia},
number = ,
volume = 145,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {12}
}

Journal Article:

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Rapid lateral solidification of pure Cu and Au thin films encapsulated in SiO2
journal, May 2005

  • Kline, J. E.; Leonard, J. P.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 86, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1925784

Revealing the transient states of rapid solidification in aluminum thin films using ultrafast in situ transmission electron microscopy
journal, April 2011

  • Kulovits, Andreas; Wiezorek, Jörg M. K.; LaGrange, Thomas
  • Philosophical Magazine Letters, Vol. 91, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1080/09500839.2011.558030

Approaches for ultrafast imaging of transient materials processes in the transmission electron microscope
journal, November 2012


Movie-mode dynamic electron microscopy
journal, January 2015

  • LaGrange, Thomas; Reed, Bryan W.; Masiel, Daniel J.
  • MRS Bulletin, Vol. 40, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1557/mrs.2014.282

Time-Resolved In Situ Measurements During Rapid Alloy Solidification: Experimental Insight for Additive Manufacturing
journal, January 2016


Capturing Dynamics of Pulsed Laser Induced Melting and Rapid Solidification in Aluminum Polycrystals with Nanoscale Temporal Resolution In-situ TEM
journal, August 2014

  • Wiezorek, Jörg M. K.; McKeown, Joseph T.; Zweiacker, Kai
  • Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 20, Issue S3
  • DOI: 10.1017/S1431927614009647

Crystal Growth Mode Changes during Pulsed Laser Induced Rapid Solidification in Nanoscale Thin Films of Al-Cu Eutectic
journal, August 2014

  • Zweiacker, Kai; Liu, Can; McKeown, Joseph T.
  • Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 20, Issue S3
  • DOI: 10.1017/S1431927614010046

Quantitative Determination of Thermal Fields and Transformation Rates in Rapidly Solidifying Aluminum by Numerical Modeling and In-situ TEM
journal, August 2015

  • Liu, Can; Zweiacker, Kai; McKeown, Joseph T.
  • Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 21, Issue S3
  • DOI: 10.1017/S1431927615004857

Laser resolidification of the AlAl2Cu eutectic: The coupled zone
journal, November 1992


Rapidly solidified AlCu alloys—I. experimental determination of the microstructure selection map
journal, December 1993


Selection of microstructures in rapid solidification processing
journal, April 1994


Refinement of the crystal structure of tetragonal Al2Cu
journal, December 1989


The Al−Cu (Aluminum-Copper) system
journal, March 1980

  • Massalski, T. B.
  • Bulletin of Alloy Phase Diagrams, Vol. 1, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF02883281

About the banded structure in rapidly solidified dendritic and eutectic alloys
journal, May 1992


Automated crystal orientation and phase mapping in TEM
journal, December 2014


Nano-Scale Spatio-Temporal Resolution in situ TEM and Numerical Modeling of Rapid Solidification Microstructure Evolution in Al Alloys After Laser Melting
journal, July 2016

  • Wiezorek, Jörg M. K.; Liu, Can; Zweiacker, Kai
  • Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 22, Issue S3
  • DOI: 10.1017/S1431927616009612

Diffusion coefficients of some solutes in fcc and liquid Al: critical evaluation and correlation
journal, December 2003


Rapid solidification of Al-Cu eutectic alloy by laser remelting
journal, December 1989


Model for solute redistribution during rapid solidification
journal, February 1982

  • Aziz, M. J.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 53, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.329867

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Process-Structure-Properties-Performance Modeling for Selective Laser Melting
    journal, October 2019

    • Pinomaa, Tatu; Yashchuk, Ivan; Lindroos, Matti
    • Metals, Vol. 9, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.3390/met9111138