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Title: An Algorithm of an X-ray Hit Allocation to a Single Pixel in a Cluster and Its Test-Circuit Implementation

An on-chip implementable algorithm for allocation of an X-ray photon imprint, called a hit, to a single pixel in the presence of charge sharing in a highly segmented pixel detector is described. Its proof-of-principle implementation is also given supported by the results of tests using a highly collimated X-ray photon beam from a synchrotron source. The algorithm handles asynchronous arrivals of X-ray photons. Activation of groups of pixels, comparisons of peak amplitudes of pulses within an active neighborhood and finally latching of the results of these comparisons constitute the three procedural steps of the algorithm. A grouping of pixels to one virtual pixel, that recovers composite signals and event driven strobes, to control comparisons of fractional signals between neighboring pixels are the actuators of the algorithm. The circuitry necessary to implement the algorithm requires an extensive inter-pixel connection grid of analog and digital signals, that are exchanged between pixels. A test-circuit implementation of the algorithm was achieved with a small array of 32 × 32 pixels and the device was exposed to an 8 keV highly collimated to a diameter of 3-μm X-ray beam. Furthermore, the results of these tests are given in this paper assessing physical implementation of themore » algorithm.« less
Authors:
ORCiD logo [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1]
  1. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  2. AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland)
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
BNL-205675-2018-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 1549-8328
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012704
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 65; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1549-8328
Publisher:
IEEE
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; Active Pixel Sensors; X-ray Detectors; Semiconductor Radiation Detectors; Mixed Analog Digital Integrated Circuits; Radiation detector circuits; Asynchronous Circuits
OSTI Identifier:
1438317

Deptuch, Grzegorz W., Fahim, Farah, Grybos, Pawel, Hoff, Jim, Holm, Scott, Maj, Piotr, Siddons, David Peter, Kmon, Piotr, Trimpl, Marcel, and Zimmerman, Tom. An Algorithm of an X-ray Hit Allocation to a Single Pixel in a Cluster and Its Test-Circuit Implementation. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1109/TCSI.2017.2713767.
Deptuch, Grzegorz W., Fahim, Farah, Grybos, Pawel, Hoff, Jim, Holm, Scott, Maj, Piotr, Siddons, David Peter, Kmon, Piotr, Trimpl, Marcel, & Zimmerman, Tom. An Algorithm of an X-ray Hit Allocation to a Single Pixel in a Cluster and Its Test-Circuit Implementation. United States. doi:10.1109/TCSI.2017.2713767.
Deptuch, Grzegorz W., Fahim, Farah, Grybos, Pawel, Hoff, Jim, Holm, Scott, Maj, Piotr, Siddons, David Peter, Kmon, Piotr, Trimpl, Marcel, and Zimmerman, Tom. 2017. "An Algorithm of an X-ray Hit Allocation to a Single Pixel in a Cluster and Its Test-Circuit Implementation". United States. doi:10.1109/TCSI.2017.2713767. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1438317.
@article{osti_1438317,
title = {An Algorithm of an X-ray Hit Allocation to a Single Pixel in a Cluster and Its Test-Circuit Implementation},
author = {Deptuch, Grzegorz W. and Fahim, Farah and Grybos, Pawel and Hoff, Jim and Holm, Scott and Maj, Piotr and Siddons, David Peter and Kmon, Piotr and Trimpl, Marcel and Zimmerman, Tom},
abstractNote = {An on-chip implementable algorithm for allocation of an X-ray photon imprint, called a hit, to a single pixel in the presence of charge sharing in a highly segmented pixel detector is described. Its proof-of-principle implementation is also given supported by the results of tests using a highly collimated X-ray photon beam from a synchrotron source. The algorithm handles asynchronous arrivals of X-ray photons. Activation of groups of pixels, comparisons of peak amplitudes of pulses within an active neighborhood and finally latching of the results of these comparisons constitute the three procedural steps of the algorithm. A grouping of pixels to one virtual pixel, that recovers composite signals and event driven strobes, to control comparisons of fractional signals between neighboring pixels are the actuators of the algorithm. The circuitry necessary to implement the algorithm requires an extensive inter-pixel connection grid of analog and digital signals, that are exchanged between pixels. A test-circuit implementation of the algorithm was achieved with a small array of 32 × 32 pixels and the device was exposed to an 8 keV highly collimated to a diameter of 3-μm X-ray beam. Furthermore, the results of these tests are given in this paper assessing physical implementation of the algorithm.},
doi = {10.1109/TCSI.2017.2713767},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers},
number = 1,
volume = 65,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {6}
}