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Title: Optimal Coordination of Building Loads and Energy Storage for Power Grid and End User Services

Demand response and energy storage play a profound role in the smart grid. The focus of this study is to evaluate benefits of coordinating flexible loads and energy storage to provide power grid and end user services. We present a Generalized Battery Model (GBM) to describe the flexibility of building loads and energy storage. An optimization-based approach is proposed to characterize the parameters (power and energy limits) of the GBM for flexible building loads. We then develop optimal coordination algorithms to provide power grid and end user services such as energy arbitrage, frequency regulation, spinning reserve, as well as energy cost and demand charge reduction. Several case studies have been performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the GBM and coordination algorithms, and evaluate the benefits of using their flexibility for power grid and end user services. We show that optimal coordination yields significant cost savings and revenue. Moreover, the best option for power grid services is to provide energy arbitrage and frequency regulation. Finally and furthermore, when coordinating flexible loads with energy storage to provide end user services, it is recommended to consider demand charge in addition to time-of-use price in order to flatten the aggregate power profile.
ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Electricity Infrastructure and Buildings Division
  2. Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1949-3053
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid; Journal ID: ISSN 1949-3053
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE; PNNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
Country of Publication:
United States
25 ENERGY STORAGE; demand response; energy storage; flexibility evaluation; Generalized Battery Model; grid and end user services; HVAC systems; optimal coordination
OSTI Identifier: