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Title: The ventilation problem in schools: literature review

Based on a review of literature published in refereed archival journals, ventilation rates in classrooms often fall far short of the minimum ventilation rates specified in standards. We report that there is compelling evidence, from both cross-sectional and intervention studies, of an association of increased student performance with increased ventilation rates. There is evidence that reduced respiratory health effects and reduced student absence are associated with increased ventilation rates. Increasing ventilation rates in schools imposes energy costs and can increase heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system capital costs. The net annual costs, ranging from a few dollars to about 10 dollars per person, are less than 0.1% of typical public spending on elementary and secondary education in the United States. Finally, such expenditures seem like a small price to pay given the evidence of health and performance benefits.
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  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Indoor Environment Group
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Indoor Air
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 27; Journal Issue: 6; Related Information: © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd; Journal ID: ISSN 0905-6947
Research Org:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY; 42 ENGINEERING; carbon dioxide; costs; health; performance; schools; ventilation
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1399162