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Title: PINGU: A vision for neutrino and particle physics at the South Pole

Abstract

The Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU) is a proposed low-energy in-fill extension to the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. With detection technology modeled closely on the successful IceCube example, PINGU will provide a 6 Mton effective mass for neutrino detection with an energy threshold of a few GeV. Also, with an unprecedented sample of over 60 000 atmospheric neutrinos per year in this energy range, PINGU will make highly competitive measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters in an energy range over an order of magnitude higher than long-baseline neutrino beam experiments. PINGU will measure the mixing parameters Θ 23 and Δm $$2\atop{32}$$ , including the octant of Θ 23 for a wide range of values, and determine the neutrino mass ordering at 3σ median significance within five years of operation. PINGU's high precision measurement of the rate of v T appearance will provide essential tests of the unitarity of the 3 ×3 PMNS neutrino mixing matrix. PINGU will also improve the sensitivity of searches for low mass dark matter in the Sun, use neutrino tomography to directly probe the composition of the Earth's core, and improve IceCube's sensitivity to neutrinos from Galactic supernovae. Finally, reoptimization of the PINGU design has permitted substantial reduction in both cost and logistical requirements while delivering performance nearly identical to configurations previously studied.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Contributing Org.:
IceCube Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1437958
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Physics. G, Nuclear and Particle Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 44; Journal Issue: 5; Related Information: © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.; Journal ID: ISSN 0954-3899
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Aartsen, M. G., Abraham, K., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Altmann, D., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Archinger, M., Arguelles, C., Arlen, T. C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Bai, X., Bartos, I., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Becker Tjus, J., Becker, K-H, BenZvi, S., Berghaus, P., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Bernhard, A., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Bissok, M., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Boersma, D. J., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Bos, F., Bose, D., Böser, S., Botner, O., Braun, J., Brayeur, L., Bretz, H-P, Burgman, A., Carver, T., Casier, M., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Christov, A., Clark, K., Classen, L., Coenders, S., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Day, M., de André, J. P. A. M., De Clercq, C., del Rosendo, E. Pino, Dembinski, H., De Ridder, S., Desiati, P., de Vries, K. D., de Wasseige, G., de With, M., DeYoung, T., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., di Lorenzo, V., Dujmovic, H., Dumm, J. P., Dunkman, M., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eichmann, B., Eller, P., Euler, S., Evans, J. J., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Feintzeig, J., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Flis, S., Fösig, C-C, Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fuchs, T., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Giang, W., Gladstone, L., Glagla, M., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Golup, G., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Haack, C., Haj Ismail, A., Hallgren, A., Halzen, F., Hansen, E., Hansmann, B., Hansmann, T., Hanson, K., Haugen, J., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Holzapfel, K., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., In, S., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Jurkovic, M., Kalekin, O., Kappes, A., Karagiorgi, G., Karg, T., Karle, A., Katori, T., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kemp, J., Kheirandish, A., Kim, M., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Kohnen, G., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Konietz, R., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krauss, C. B., Krings, K., Kroll, M., Krückl, G., Krüger, C., Kunnen, J., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kuwabara, T., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lennarz, D., Lesiak-Bzdak, M., Leuermann, M., Leuner, J., LoSecco, J., Lu, L., Lünemann, J., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Mancina, S., Mandalia, S., Mandelartz, M., Marka, S., Marka, Z., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., McNally, F., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Meier, M., Meli, A., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Mohrmann, L., Montaruli, T., Moore, R. W., Moulai, M., Nahnhauer, R., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Obertacke Pollmann, A., Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., Palazzo, A., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Penek, Ö., Pepper, J. A., Pérez de los Heros, C., Petersen, T. C., Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Pinfold, J. L., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Quinnan, M., Raab, C., Rädel, L., Rameez, M., Rawlins, K., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Relich, M., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Riedel, B., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Sabbatini, L., Sanchez Herrera, S. E., Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Sandstrom, P., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schimp, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schoenen, S., Schöneberg, S., Schumacher, L., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Shaevitz, M. H., Soldin, D., Söldner-Rembold, S., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stahlberg, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Ström, R., Strotjohann, N. L., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taavola, H., Taboada, I., Taketa, A., Tanaka, H. K. M., Tatar, J., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tešić, G., Tilav, S., Toale, P. A., Tobin, M. N., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Turcati, A., Unger, E., Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., van Eijndhoven, N., Vanheule, S., van Rossem, M., van Santen, J., Veenkamp, J., Vehring, M., Voge, M., Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandkowsky, N., Weaver, Ch, Weiss, M. J., Wendt, C., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Wickmann, S., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Woschnagg, K., Wren, S., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., and Zoll, M. PINGU: A vision for neutrino and particle physics at the South Pole. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1088/1361-6471/44/5/054006.
Aartsen, M. G., Abraham, K., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Altmann, D., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Archinger, M., Arguelles, C., Arlen, T. C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Bai, X., Bartos, I., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Becker Tjus, J., Becker, K-H, BenZvi, S., Berghaus, P., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Bernhard, A., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Bissok, M., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Boersma, D. J., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Bos, F., Bose, D., Böser, S., Botner, O., Braun, J., Brayeur, L., Bretz, H-P, Burgman, A., Carver, T., Casier, M., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Christov, A., Clark, K., Classen, L., Coenders, S., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Day, M., de André, J. P. A. M., De Clercq, C., del Rosendo, E. Pino, Dembinski, H., De Ridder, S., Desiati, P., de Vries, K. D., de Wasseige, G., de With, M., DeYoung, T., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., di Lorenzo, V., Dujmovic, H., Dumm, J. P., Dunkman, M., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eichmann, B., Eller, P., Euler, S., Evans, J. J., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Feintzeig, J., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Flis, S., Fösig, C-C, Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fuchs, T., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Giang, W., Gladstone, L., Glagla, M., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Golup, G., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Haack, C., Haj Ismail, A., Hallgren, A., Halzen, F., Hansen, E., Hansmann, B., Hansmann, T., Hanson, K., Haugen, J., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Holzapfel, K., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., In, S., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Jurkovic, M., Kalekin, O., Kappes, A., Karagiorgi, G., Karg, T., Karle, A., Katori, T., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kemp, J., Kheirandish, A., Kim, M., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Kohnen, G., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Konietz, R., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krauss, C. B., Krings, K., Kroll, M., Krückl, G., Krüger, C., Kunnen, J., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kuwabara, T., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lennarz, D., Lesiak-Bzdak, M., Leuermann, M., Leuner, J., LoSecco, J., Lu, L., Lünemann, J., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Mancina, S., Mandalia, S., Mandelartz, M., Marka, S., Marka, Z., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., McNally, F., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Meier, M., Meli, A., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Mohrmann, L., Montaruli, T., Moore, R. W., Moulai, M., Nahnhauer, R., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Obertacke Pollmann, A., Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., Palazzo, A., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Penek, Ö., Pepper, J. A., Pérez de los Heros, C., Petersen, T. C., Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Pinfold, J. L., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Quinnan, M., Raab, C., Rädel, L., Rameez, M., Rawlins, K., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Relich, M., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Riedel, B., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Sabbatini, L., Sanchez Herrera, S. E., Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Sandstrom, P., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schimp, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schoenen, S., Schöneberg, S., Schumacher, L., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Shaevitz, M. H., Soldin, D., Söldner-Rembold, S., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stahlberg, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Ström, R., Strotjohann, N. L., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taavola, H., Taboada, I., Taketa, A., Tanaka, H. K. M., Tatar, J., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tešić, G., Tilav, S., Toale, P. A., Tobin, M. N., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Turcati, A., Unger, E., Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., van Eijndhoven, N., Vanheule, S., van Rossem, M., van Santen, J., Veenkamp, J., Vehring, M., Voge, M., Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandkowsky, N., Weaver, Ch, Weiss, M. J., Wendt, C., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Wickmann, S., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Woschnagg, K., Wren, S., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., & Zoll, M. PINGU: A vision for neutrino and particle physics at the South Pole. United States. doi:10.1088/1361-6471/44/5/054006.
Aartsen, M. G., Abraham, K., Ackermann, M., Adams, J., Aguilar, J. A., Ahlers, M., Ahrens, M., Altmann, D., Andeen, K., Anderson, T., Ansseau, I., Anton, G., Archinger, M., Arguelles, C., Arlen, T. C., Auffenberg, J., Axani, S., Bai, X., Bartos, I., Barwick, S. W., Baum, V., Bay, R., Beatty, J. J., Becker Tjus, J., Becker, K-H, BenZvi, S., Berghaus, P., Berley, D., Bernardini, E., Bernhard, A., Besson, D. Z., Binder, G., Bindig, D., Bissok, M., Blaufuss, E., Blot, S., Boersma, D. J., Bohm, C., Börner, M., Bos, F., Bose, D., Böser, S., Botner, O., Braun, J., Brayeur, L., Bretz, H-P, Burgman, A., Carver, T., Casier, M., Cheung, E., Chirkin, D., Christov, A., Clark, K., Classen, L., Coenders, S., Collin, G. H., Conrad, J. M., Cowen, D. F., Cross, R., Day, M., de André, J. P. A. M., De Clercq, C., del Rosendo, E. Pino, Dembinski, H., De Ridder, S., Desiati, P., de Vries, K. D., de Wasseige, G., de With, M., DeYoung, T., Díaz-Vélez, J. C., di Lorenzo, V., Dujmovic, H., Dumm, J. P., Dunkman, M., Eberhardt, B., Ehrhardt, T., Eichmann, B., Eller, P., Euler, S., Evans, J. J., Evenson, P. A., Fahey, S., Fazely, A. R., Feintzeig, J., Felde, J., Filimonov, K., Finley, C., Flis, S., Fösig, C-C, Franckowiak, A., Friedman, E., Fuchs, T., Gaisser, T. K., Gallagher, J., Gerhardt, L., Ghorbani, K., Giang, W., Gladstone, L., Glagla, M., Glüsenkamp, T., Goldschmidt, A., Golup, G., Gonzalez, J. G., Grant, D., Griffith, Z., Haack, C., Haj Ismail, A., Hallgren, A., Halzen, F., Hansen, E., Hansmann, B., Hansmann, T., Hanson, K., Haugen, J., Hebecker, D., Heereman, D., Helbing, K., Hellauer, R., Hickford, S., Hignight, J., Hill, G. C., Hoffman, K. D., Hoffmann, R., Holzapfel, K., Hoshina, K., Huang, F., Huber, M., Hultqvist, K., In, S., Ishihara, A., Jacobi, E., Japaridze, G. S., Jeong, M., Jero, K., Jones, B. J. P., Jurkovic, M., Kalekin, O., Kappes, A., Karagiorgi, G., Karg, T., Karle, A., Katori, T., Katz, U., Kauer, M., Keivani, A., Kelley, J. L., Kemp, J., Kheirandish, A., Kim, M., Kintscher, T., Kiryluk, J., Kittler, T., Klein, S. R., Kohnen, G., Koirala, R., Kolanoski, H., Konietz, R., Köpke, L., Kopper, C., Kopper, S., Koskinen, D. J., Kowalski, M., Krauss, C. B., Krings, K., Kroll, M., Krückl, G., Krüger, C., Kunnen, J., Kunwar, S., Kurahashi, N., Kuwabara, T., Labare, M., Lanfranchi, J. L., Larson, M. J., Lauber, F., Lennarz, D., Lesiak-Bzdak, M., Leuermann, M., Leuner, J., LoSecco, J., Lu, L., Lünemann, J., Madsen, J., Maggi, G., Mahn, K. B. M., Mancina, S., Mandalia, S., Mandelartz, M., Marka, S., Marka, Z., Maruyama, R., Mase, K., Maunu, R., McNally, F., Meagher, K., Medici, M., Meier, M., Meli, A., Menne, T., Merino, G., Meures, T., Miarecki, S., Mohrmann, L., Montaruli, T., Moore, R. W., Moulai, M., Nahnhauer, R., Naumann, U., Neer, G., Niederhausen, H., Nowicki, S. C., Nygren, D. R., Obertacke Pollmann, A., Olivas, A., O’Murchadha, A., Palazzo, A., Palczewski, T., Pandya, H., Pankova, D. V., Penek, Ö., Pepper, J. A., Pérez de los Heros, C., Petersen, T. C., Pieloth, D., Pinat, E., Pinfold, J. L., Price, P. B., Przybylski, G. T., Quinnan, M., Raab, C., Rädel, L., Rameez, M., Rawlins, K., Reimann, R., Relethford, B., Relich, M., Resconi, E., Rhode, W., Richman, M., Riedel, B., Robertson, S., Rongen, M., Rott, C., Ruhe, T., Ryckbosch, D., Rysewyk, D., Sabbatini, L., Sanchez Herrera, S. E., Sandrock, A., Sandroos, J., Sandstrom, P., Sarkar, S., Satalecka, K., Schimp, M., Schlunder, P., Schmidt, T., Schoenen, S., Schöneberg, S., Schumacher, L., Seckel, D., Seunarine, S., Shaevitz, M. H., Soldin, D., Söldner-Rembold, S., Song, M., Spiczak, G. M., Spiering, C., Stahlberg, M., Stanev, T., Stasik, A., Steuer, A., Stezelberger, T., Stokstad, R. G., Stößl, A., Ström, R., Strotjohann, N. L., Sullivan, G. W., Sutherland, M., Taavola, H., Taboada, I., Taketa, A., Tanaka, H. K. M., Tatar, J., Tenholt, F., Ter-Antonyan, S., Terliuk, A., Tešić, G., Tilav, S., Toale, P. A., Tobin, M. N., Toscano, S., Tosi, D., Tselengidou, M., Turcati, A., Unger, E., Usner, M., Vandenbroucke, J., van Eijndhoven, N., Vanheule, S., van Rossem, M., van Santen, J., Veenkamp, J., Vehring, M., Voge, M., Vraeghe, M., Walck, C., Wallace, A., Wallraff, M., Wandkowsky, N., Weaver, Ch, Weiss, M. J., Wendt, C., Westerhoff, S., Whelan, B. J., Wickmann, S., Wiebe, K., Wiebusch, C. H., Wille, L., Williams, D. R., Wills, L., Wolf, M., Wood, T. R., Woolsey, E., Woschnagg, K., Wren, S., Xu, D. L., Xu, X. W., Xu, Y., Yanez, J. P., Yodh, G., Yoshida, S., and Zoll, M. Fri . "PINGU: A vision for neutrino and particle physics at the South Pole". United States. doi:10.1088/1361-6471/44/5/054006. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1437958.
@article{osti_1437958,
title = {PINGU: A vision for neutrino and particle physics at the South Pole},
author = {Aartsen, M. G. and Abraham, K. and Ackermann, M. and Adams, J. and Aguilar, J. A. and Ahlers, M. and Ahrens, M. and Altmann, D. and Andeen, K. and Anderson, T. and Ansseau, I. and Anton, G. and Archinger, M. and Arguelles, C. and Arlen, T. C. and Auffenberg, J. and Axani, S. and Bai, X. and Bartos, I. and Barwick, S. W. and Baum, V. and Bay, R. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker Tjus, J. and Becker, K-H and BenZvi, S. and Berghaus, P. and Berley, D. and Bernardini, E. and Bernhard, A. and Besson, D. Z. and Binder, G. and Bindig, D. and Bissok, M. and Blaufuss, E. and Blot, S. and Boersma, D. J. and Bohm, C. and Börner, M. and Bos, F. and Bose, D. and Böser, S. and Botner, O. and Braun, J. and Brayeur, L. and Bretz, H-P and Burgman, A. and Carver, T. and Casier, M. and Cheung, E. and Chirkin, D. and Christov, A. and Clark, K. and Classen, L. and Coenders, S. and Collin, G. H. and Conrad, J. M. and Cowen, D. F. and Cross, R. and Day, M. and de André, J. P. A. M. and De Clercq, C. and del Rosendo, E. Pino and Dembinski, H. and De Ridder, S. and Desiati, P. and de Vries, K. D. and de Wasseige, G. and de With, M. and DeYoung, T. and Díaz-Vélez, J. C. and di Lorenzo, V. and Dujmovic, H. and Dumm, J. P. and Dunkman, M. and Eberhardt, B. and Ehrhardt, T. and Eichmann, B. and Eller, P. and Euler, S. and Evans, J. J. and Evenson, P. A. and Fahey, S. and Fazely, A. R. and Feintzeig, J. and Felde, J. and Filimonov, K. and Finley, C. and Flis, S. and Fösig, C-C and Franckowiak, A. and Friedman, E. and Fuchs, T. and Gaisser, T. K. and Gallagher, J. and Gerhardt, L. and Ghorbani, K. and Giang, W. and Gladstone, L. and Glagla, M. and Glüsenkamp, T. and Goldschmidt, A. and Golup, G. and Gonzalez, J. G. and Grant, D. and Griffith, Z. and Haack, C. and Haj Ismail, A. and Hallgren, A. and Halzen, F. and Hansen, E. and Hansmann, B. and Hansmann, T. and Hanson, K. and Haugen, J. and Hebecker, D. and Heereman, D. and Helbing, K. and Hellauer, R. and Hickford, S. and Hignight, J. and Hill, G. C. and Hoffman, K. D. and Hoffmann, R. and Holzapfel, K. and Hoshina, K. and Huang, F. and Huber, M. and Hultqvist, K. and In, S. and Ishihara, A. and Jacobi, E. and Japaridze, G. S. and Jeong, M. and Jero, K. and Jones, B. J. P. and Jurkovic, M. and Kalekin, O. and Kappes, A. and Karagiorgi, G. and Karg, T. and Karle, A. and Katori, T. and Katz, U. and Kauer, M. and Keivani, A. and Kelley, J. L. and Kemp, J. and Kheirandish, A. and Kim, M. and Kintscher, T. and Kiryluk, J. and Kittler, T. and Klein, S. R. and Kohnen, G. and Koirala, R. and Kolanoski, H. and Konietz, R. and Köpke, L. and Kopper, C. and Kopper, S. and Koskinen, D. J. and Kowalski, M. and Krauss, C. 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abstractNote = {The Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU) is a proposed low-energy in-fill extension to the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. With detection technology modeled closely on the successful IceCube example, PINGU will provide a 6 Mton effective mass for neutrino detection with an energy threshold of a few GeV. Also, with an unprecedented sample of over 60 000 atmospheric neutrinos per year in this energy range, PINGU will make highly competitive measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters in an energy range over an order of magnitude higher than long-baseline neutrino beam experiments. PINGU will measure the mixing parameters Θ23 and Δm $2\atop{32}$ , including the octant of Θ23 for a wide range of values, and determine the neutrino mass ordering at 3σ median significance within five years of operation. PINGU's high precision measurement of the rate of vT appearance will provide essential tests of the unitarity of the 3 ×3 PMNS neutrino mixing matrix. PINGU will also improve the sensitivity of searches for low mass dark matter in the Sun, use neutrino tomography to directly probe the composition of the Earth's core, and improve IceCube's sensitivity to neutrinos from Galactic supernovae. Finally, reoptimization of the PINGU design has permitted substantial reduction in both cost and logistical requirements while delivering performance nearly identical to configurations previously studied.},
doi = {10.1088/1361-6471/44/5/054006},
journal = {Journal of Physics. G, Nuclear and Particle Physics},
number = 5,
volume = 44,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {4}
}

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Figure 1 Figure 1: The IceCube Laboratory building houses power, communications and data acquisition systems for IceCube and other experiments at the South Pole (photo by S. Lidström, IceCube/NSF).

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