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Title: Optimal Pulse Processing, Pile-Up Decomposition, and Applications of Silicon Drift Detectors at LCLS

Abstract

Silicon drift detectors (SDDs) revolutionized spectroscopy in fields as diverse as geology and dentistry. For a subset of experiments at ultrafast, X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs), SDDs can make substantial contributions. Often the unknown spectrum is interesting, carrying science data, or the background measurement is useful to identify unexpected signals. Many measurements involve only several discrete photon energies known a priori, allowing single-event decomposition of pile-up and spectroscopic photon counting. We designed a pulse function and demonstrated that the signal amplitude (i.e., proportional to the detected energy and obtained from fitting with the pulse function), rise time, and pulse height are interrelated, and at short peaking times, the pulse height and pulse area are not optimal estimators for detected energy; instead, the signal amplitude and rise time are obtained for each pulse by fitting, thus removing the need for pulse shaping. By avoiding pulse shaping, rise times of tens of nanoseconds resulted in reduced pulse pile-up and allowed decomposition of remaining pulse pile-up at photon separation times down to hundreds of nanoseconds while yielding time-of-arrival information with the precision of 10 ns. Waveform fitting yields simultaneously high energy resolution and high counting rates (two orders of magnitude higher than current digitalmore » pulse processors). At pulsed sources or high photon rates, photon pile-up still occurs. We showed that pile-up spectrum fitting is relatively simple and preferable to pile-up spectrum deconvolution. We then developed a photon pile-up statistical model for constant intensity sources, extended it to variable intensity sources (typical for FELs), and used it to fit a complex pileup spectrum. We subsequently developed a Bayesian pile-up decomposition method that allows decomposing pile-up of single events with up to six photons from six monochromatic lines with 99% accuracy. The usefulness of SDDs will continue into the X-ray FEL era of science. Their successors, the ePixS hybrid pixel detectors, already offer hundreds of pixels, each with a similar performance to an SDD, in a compact, robust and affordable package.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC), Menlo Park, CA (United States). . Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1437883
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 64; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 0018-9499
Publisher:
IEEE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; Silicon drift detectors; free-electron lasers; pulse pile-up; photon pile-up; Bayesian decomposition; x-ray spectroscopy; photon counting; photonics; detectors; pulse shaping methods; iron; x-ray lasers; program processors; shape

Citation Formats

Blaj, G., Kenney, C. J., Dragone, A., Carini, G., Herrmann, S., Hart, P., Tomada, A., Koglin, J., Haller, G., Boutet, S., Messerschmidt, M., Williams, G., Chollet, M., Dakovski, G., Nelson, S., Pines, J., Song, S., and Thayer, J. Optimal Pulse Processing, Pile-Up Decomposition, and Applications of Silicon Drift Detectors at LCLS. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1109/tns.2017.2762281.
Blaj, G., Kenney, C. J., Dragone, A., Carini, G., Herrmann, S., Hart, P., Tomada, A., Koglin, J., Haller, G., Boutet, S., Messerschmidt, M., Williams, G., Chollet, M., Dakovski, G., Nelson, S., Pines, J., Song, S., & Thayer, J. Optimal Pulse Processing, Pile-Up Decomposition, and Applications of Silicon Drift Detectors at LCLS. United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/tns.2017.2762281
Blaj, G., Kenney, C. J., Dragone, A., Carini, G., Herrmann, S., Hart, P., Tomada, A., Koglin, J., Haller, G., Boutet, S., Messerschmidt, M., Williams, G., Chollet, M., Dakovski, G., Nelson, S., Pines, J., Song, S., and Thayer, J. Wed . "Optimal Pulse Processing, Pile-Up Decomposition, and Applications of Silicon Drift Detectors at LCLS". United States. https://doi.org/10.1109/tns.2017.2762281. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1437883.
@article{osti_1437883,
title = {Optimal Pulse Processing, Pile-Up Decomposition, and Applications of Silicon Drift Detectors at LCLS},
author = {Blaj, G. and Kenney, C. J. and Dragone, A. and Carini, G. and Herrmann, S. and Hart, P. and Tomada, A. and Koglin, J. and Haller, G. and Boutet, S. and Messerschmidt, M. and Williams, G. and Chollet, M. and Dakovski, G. and Nelson, S. and Pines, J. and Song, S. and Thayer, J.},
abstractNote = {Silicon drift detectors (SDDs) revolutionized spectroscopy in fields as diverse as geology and dentistry. For a subset of experiments at ultrafast, X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs), SDDs can make substantial contributions. Often the unknown spectrum is interesting, carrying science data, or the background measurement is useful to identify unexpected signals. Many measurements involve only several discrete photon energies known a priori, allowing single-event decomposition of pile-up and spectroscopic photon counting. We designed a pulse function and demonstrated that the signal amplitude (i.e., proportional to the detected energy and obtained from fitting with the pulse function), rise time, and pulse height are interrelated, and at short peaking times, the pulse height and pulse area are not optimal estimators for detected energy; instead, the signal amplitude and rise time are obtained for each pulse by fitting, thus removing the need for pulse shaping. By avoiding pulse shaping, rise times of tens of nanoseconds resulted in reduced pulse pile-up and allowed decomposition of remaining pulse pile-up at photon separation times down to hundreds of nanoseconds while yielding time-of-arrival information with the precision of 10 ns. Waveform fitting yields simultaneously high energy resolution and high counting rates (two orders of magnitude higher than current digital pulse processors). At pulsed sources or high photon rates, photon pile-up still occurs. We showed that pile-up spectrum fitting is relatively simple and preferable to pile-up spectrum deconvolution. We then developed a photon pile-up statistical model for constant intensity sources, extended it to variable intensity sources (typical for FELs), and used it to fit a complex pileup spectrum. We subsequently developed a Bayesian pile-up decomposition method that allows decomposing pile-up of single events with up to six photons from six monochromatic lines with 99% accuracy. The usefulness of SDDs will continue into the X-ray FEL era of science. Their successors, the ePixS hybrid pixel detectors, already offer hundreds of pixels, each with a similar performance to an SDD, in a compact, robust and affordable package.},
doi = {10.1109/tns.2017.2762281},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science},
number = 11,
volume = 64,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Schematic diagram of the sample chamber at the Coherent X-ray Imaging instrument at LCLS: (a) top view: the direct beam passes through an Fe target and exits the chamber; fluorescence and scattered photons are collected at a right angle onto the silicon drift detector (SDD); the entire setupmore » is enclosed in the vacuum chamber; (b) side view, showing the Fe target and SDD at beam height.« less

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