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Title: Millimeter-wave imaging of magnetic fusion plasmas: technology innovations advancing physics understanding

Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) imaging is a passive radiometric technique that measures electron temperature fluctuations; and microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) is an active radar imaging technique that measures electron density fluctuations. The microwave imaging diagnostic instruments employing these techniques have made important contributions to fusion science and have been adopted at major fusion facilities worldwide including DIII-D, EAST, ASDEX Upgrade, HL-2A, KSTAR, LHD, and J-TEXT. In this paper, we describe the development status of three major technological advancements: custom mm-wave integrated circuits (ICs), digital beamforming (DBF), and synthetic diagnostic modeling (SDM). These also have the potential to greatly advance microwave fusion plasma imaging, enabling compact and low-noise transceiver systems with real-time, fast tracking ability to address critical fusion physics issues, including ELM suppression and disruptions in the ITER baseline scenario, naturally ELM-free states such as QH-mode, and energetic particle confinement (i.e. Alfven eigenmode stability) in high-performance regimes that include steady-state and advanced tokamak scenarios. Furthermore, these systems are fully compatible with today's most challenging non-inductive heating and current drive systems and capable of operating in harsh environments, making them the ideal approach for diagnosing long-pulse and steady-state tokamaks.
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  1. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
  2. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
  3. Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology (Japan)
  4. Kyushu Univ. (Japan)
  5. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-09CH11466; FG02-99ER54531
Published Article
Journal Name:
Nuclear Fusion
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 57; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 0029-5515
IOP Science
Research Org:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24)
Country of Publication:
United States
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; electron cyclotron emission imaging; microwave imaging reflectometry; integrated circuit; digital beamforming; synthetic diagnostics; horn; antenna array; liquid crystal polymer; electron-cyclotron emission; temperature fluctuations; tokamak plasmas; east tokamak; text-u; diii-; reflectometry; visualization; simulations; diagnostics; Physics
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1393909