DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Quantitative correlation between the void morphology of niobium-tin wires and their irreversible critical current degradation upon mechanical loading

Abstract

Understanding the critical current performance variation of Nb3Sn superconducting wires under mechanical loading is a crucial issue for the design of next generation accelerator and fusion magnets. In these applications, the mechanical properties of the conductors may become a limiting factor due to the strong electro-magnetic forces resulting from the combination of large magnets and intense magnetic fields. In particular, the presence of voids in the superconducting filament structure, which are formed during the fabrication and the reaction heat treatment, determines localized stress concentrations and possibly the formation of cracks. In this work, we demonstrate a quantitative correlation between the void morphology and the electro-mechanical limits measured on different Bronze route Nb3Sn wires. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) prior to the reaction heat treatment is utilized to partially eliminate the voids. The wires’ void distributions - with and without HIP treatment - are detected and statistically analyzed using high energy X-ray micro tomography. The stress concentration due to the shape and distribution of the voids as well as their impact on the electro-mechanical properties are determined through finite element method modeling. Lastly, the results are quantitatively correlated with the experimentally determined limits of the irreversible critical current degradation upon mechanical loading.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1];  [3];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)
  2. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble (France)
  3. Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States). Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1436733
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Characterization and analytical techniques; Superconducting properties and materials

Citation Formats

Barth, Christian, Seeber, B., Rack, A., Calzolaio, C., Zhai, Y., Matera, D., and Senatore, C. Quantitative correlation between the void morphology of niobium-tin wires and their irreversible critical current degradation upon mechanical loading. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-24966-z.
Barth, Christian, Seeber, B., Rack, A., Calzolaio, C., Zhai, Y., Matera, D., & Senatore, C. Quantitative correlation between the void morphology of niobium-tin wires and their irreversible critical current degradation upon mechanical loading. United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-24966-z
Barth, Christian, Seeber, B., Rack, A., Calzolaio, C., Zhai, Y., Matera, D., and Senatore, C. Thu . "Quantitative correlation between the void morphology of niobium-tin wires and their irreversible critical current degradation upon mechanical loading". United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-24966-z. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1436733.
@article{osti_1436733,
title = {Quantitative correlation between the void morphology of niobium-tin wires and their irreversible critical current degradation upon mechanical loading},
author = {Barth, Christian and Seeber, B. and Rack, A. and Calzolaio, C. and Zhai, Y. and Matera, D. and Senatore, C.},
abstractNote = {Understanding the critical current performance variation of Nb3Sn superconducting wires under mechanical loading is a crucial issue for the design of next generation accelerator and fusion magnets. In these applications, the mechanical properties of the conductors may become a limiting factor due to the strong electro-magnetic forces resulting from the combination of large magnets and intense magnetic fields. In particular, the presence of voids in the superconducting filament structure, which are formed during the fabrication and the reaction heat treatment, determines localized stress concentrations and possibly the formation of cracks. In this work, we demonstrate a quantitative correlation between the void morphology and the electro-mechanical limits measured on different Bronze route Nb3Sn wires. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) prior to the reaction heat treatment is utilized to partially eliminate the voids. The wires’ void distributions - with and without HIP treatment - are detected and statistically analyzed using high energy X-ray micro tomography. The stress concentration due to the shape and distribution of the voids as well as their impact on the electro-mechanical properties are determined through finite element method modeling. Lastly, the results are quantitatively correlated with the experimentally determined limits of the irreversible critical current degradation upon mechanical loading.},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-018-24966-z},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = 1,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Which superconducting material for the toroidal field system of the fusion DEMO reactor?
journal, February 2008


Correlation between degradation and broadness of the transition in CICC
journal, September 2013


Synchrotron Microtomography Investigation of the Filament Microstructure in Differently Processed Bi-2212 Wires
journal, June 2017

  • Scheuerlein, Christian; Rack, Alexander; Schladitz, Katja
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 27, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/tasc.2016.2644539

750 MHz NMR magnet development
journal, January 1992

  • Zhukovsky, A.; Iwasa, Y.; Bobrov, E. S.
  • IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 28, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/20.119960

On the Minimum Size of DEMO
journal, October 2010

  • Zohm, Hartmut
  • Fusion Science and Technology, Vol. 58, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.13182/FST10-06

The upper critical field of filamentary Nb3Sn conductors
journal, May 2005

  • Godeke, A.; Jewell, M. C.; Fischer, C. M.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 97, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1890447

The influence of Nb 3 Sn strand geometry on filament breakage under bend strain as revealed by metallography
journal, August 2003

  • Jewell, Matthew C.; Lee, Peter J.; Larbalestier, David C.
  • Superconductor Science and Technology, Vol. 16, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1088/0953-2048/16/9/308

A device for critical current versus strain measurements up to 1000 A and 17 T on 80 cm long HTS and LTS technical superconductors
journal, August 2003


Analysis of spatial cross-correlations in multi-constituent volume data: ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL CROSS-CORRELATIONS
journal, October 2008


Fundamental aspects of hot isostatic pressing: An overview
journal, December 2000


Critical current of dense Bi-2212 round wires as a function of axial strain
journal, February 2015


Upper Critical Field of Nb‐Zr and Nb‐Ti Alloys
journal, September 1963

  • El Bindari, A.; Litvak, M. M.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 34, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1729831

Performance evolution of Nb/sub 3/Sn cable-in-conduit conductors under cyclic load [for Tokamaks]
journal, March 2002

  • Bruzzone, P.; Fuchs, A. M.; Stepanov, B.
  • IEEE Transactions on Appiled Superconductivity, Vol. 12, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/tasc.2002.1018456

Critical current limiting factors of hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) PbMo/sub 6/S/sub 8/ wires
journal, June 1995

  • Seeber, B.; Erbuke, L.; Schroeter, V.
  • IEEE Transactions on Appiled Superconductivity, Vol. 5, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/77.402778

Superconductivity of Nb 3 Sn
journal, September 1954


Doubled critical current density in Bi-2212 round wires by reduction of the residual bubble density
journal, June 2011


Layout Study for the Dipole Magnets of the Future Circular Collider Using Nb-Ti and Nb 3 Sn
journal, June 2016

  • van Nugteren, J.; Schoerling, D.; Kirby, G.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 26, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2016.2530042

The influence of the starting Cu-Sn phase on the superconducting properties of subsequently reacted internal-Sn Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors
journal, March 2001

  • Naus, M. T.; Lee, P. J.; Larbalestier, D. C.
  • IEEE Transactions on Appiled Superconductivity, Vol. 11, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/77.919835

Perspective on a Superconducting 30 T/1.3 GHz NMR Spectrometer Magnet
journal, June 2006

  • Markiewicz, W. D.; Miller, J. R.; Schwartz, J.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 16, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/tasc.2005.869663

Finite element analysis of dynamic crack propagation using remeshing technique
journal, April 2009


On the elimination of Kirkendall voids in superconducting composites
journal, October 1979

  • Cogan, S.; Holmes, D. S.; Rose, R. M.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.91178

Design of the ITER PF Coils
journal, June 2011

  • Lim, B.; Simon, F.; Ilyin, Y.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 21, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2010.2092732

Study of Filament Cracking Under Uniaxial Repeated Loading for ITER TF Strands
journal, June 2012

  • Sheth, M. K.; Lee, P. J.; McRae, D. M.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2011.2174554

Electro-mechanical properties of PIT Nb 3 Sn wires under transverse stress: experimental results and FEM analysis
journal, April 2015


Detailed design of the ITER central solenoid
journal, June 2009


Manufacturing of the Iseult/INUMAC Whole Body 11.7 T MRI Magnet
journal, June 2014

  • Vedrine, P.; Aubert, G.; Belorgey, J.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 24, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2013.2286256

Development of high-T/sub c/ superconductor wires for magnet applications
journal, March 1991

  • Tenbrink, J.; Wilhelm, M.; Heine, K.
  • IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 27, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/20.133409

Adaptive Thresholding using the Integral Image
journal, January 2007


On the suppression of Kirkendall porosity in multifilamentary superconducting composites
journal, January 1981


High field Nb/sub 3/ Sn conductor development at oxford superconducting technology
journal, June 2003

  • Parrell, J. A.; Field, M. B.
  • IEEE Transactions on Appiled Superconductivity, Vol. 13, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/tasc.2003.812360

Test Result of a Full-Size ${\rm Nb}_{3}{\rm Sn}$ Conductor Developed for the ITER TF Coils
journal, June 2011

  • Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Nabara, Yoshiro; Yoshikawa, Masatoshi
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 21, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/tasc.2010.2093488

Double disordered YBCO coated conductors of industrial scale: high currents in high magnetic field
journal, October 2015


Electro-mechanical properties of REBCO coated conductors from various industrial manufacturers at 77 K, self-field and 4.2 K, 19 T
journal, February 2015


Kirkendall voids--A detriment to Nb3Sn superconductors
journal, January 1979


The Axial Tensile Stress–Strain Characterization of Ag-Sheathed Bi2212 Round Wire
journal, June 2015

  • Dai, Chao; Liu, Bo; Qin, Jinggang
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 25, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2014.2368053

Status Report on the Toroidal Field Coils for the ITER Project
journal, June 2010

  • Savary, F.; Bonito-Oliva, A.; Gallix, R.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 20, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/tasc.2010.2040914

Evaluation of gravel sphericity and roundness based on surface-area measurement with a laser scanner
journal, July 2005


Finite-Element Analysis of Transverse Compressive and Thermal Loads on Nb 3 Sn Wires With Voids
journal, June 2016

  • Zhai, Y.; D'Hauthuille, L.; Barth, C.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 26, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/tasc.2016.2535784

The effect of hot isostatic pressing on the strain tolerance of the critical current density found in modified jelly roll Nb/sub 3/Sn wires
journal, June 1999

  • Keys, S. A.; Cheggour, N.; Hampshire, D. P.
  • IEEE Transactions on Appiled Superconductivity, Vol. 9, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/77.784662

Latest Improvements of Current Carrying Capability of Niobium Tin and Its Magnet Applications
journal, June 2006

  • Hong, S.; Field, M. B.; Parrell, J. A.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 16, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/tasc.2005.864270

BSCCO-2212 conductor development at oxford superconducting technology
journal, June 2003

  • Marken, K. R.; Miao, H.; Meinesz, M.
  • IEEE Transactions on Appiled Superconductivity, Vol. 13, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/tasc.2003.812307

Evidence that filament fracture occurs in an ITER toroidal field conductor after cyclic Lorentz force loading in SULTAN
journal, May 2012


Systematic Study on Filament Fracture Distribution in ITER ${\hbox {Nb}}_{3}{\hbox {Sn}}$ Strands
journal, June 2009

  • Nijhuis, A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Jewell, M. C.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 19, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/tasc.2009.2018082

Direct observation of Nb 3 Sn lattice deformation by high-energy x-ray diffraction in internal-tin wires subject to mechanical loads at 4.2 K
journal, April 2012


Osteocyte lacuna size and shape in women with and without osteoporotic fracture
journal, April 2004

  • McCreadie, Barbara R.; Hollister, Scott J.; Schaffler, Mitchell B.
  • Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 37, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1016/s0021-9290(03)00287-2

Toward a standard for critical current versus axial strain measurements of Nb 3 Sn
journal, April 2012


Powder-in-tube (PIT) Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors for high-field magnets
journal, March 2000

  • Lindenhovius, J. L. H.; Hornsveld, E. M.; den Ouden, A.
  • IEEE Transactions on Appiled Superconductivity, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/77.828394

Properties and performance of high current density Sn-core process MF Nb<inf>3</inf>Sn
journal, May 1983


Status Report on the Toroidal Field Coils for the ITER Project
journal, June 2010

  • Savary, F.; Bonito-Oliva, A.; Gallix, R.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 20, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2010.2040914

Latest Improvements of Current Carrying Capability of Niobium Tin and Its Magnet Applications
journal, June 2006

  • Hong, S.; Field, M. B.; Parrell, J. A.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 16, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2005.864270

BSCCO-2212 conductor development at oxford superconducting technology
journal, June 2003

  • Marken, K. R.; Miao, H.; Meinesz, M.
  • IEEE Transactions on Appiled Superconductivity, Vol. 13, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2003.812307

Perspective on a Superconducting 30 T/1.3 GHz NMR Spectrometer Magnet
journal, June 2006

  • Markiewicz, W. D.; Miller, J. R.; Schwartz, J.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 16, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2005.869663

Test Result of a Full-Size ${\rm Nb}_{3}{\rm Sn}$ Conductor Developed for the ITER TF Coils
journal, June 2011

  • Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Nabara, Yoshiro; Yoshikawa, Masatoshi
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 21, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2010.2093488

Kirkendall voids--A detriment to Nb3Sn superconductors
journal, January 1979


Systematic Study on Filament Fracture Distribution in ITER ${\hbox {Nb}}_{3}{\hbox {Sn}}$ Strands
journal, June 2009

  • Nijhuis, A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Jewell, M. C.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 19, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2009.2018082

Performance evolution of Nb/sub 3/Sn cable-in-conduit conductors under cyclic load [for Tokamaks]
journal, March 2002

  • Bruzzone, P.; Fuchs, A. M.; Stepanov, B.
  • IEEE Transactions on Appiled Superconductivity, Vol. 12, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2002.1018456

Properties and performance of high current density Sn-core process MF Nb<inf>3</inf>Sn
journal, May 1983


High field Nb/sub 3/ Sn conductor development at oxford superconducting technology
journal, June 2003

  • Parrell, J. A.; Field, M. B.
  • IEEE Transactions on Appiled Superconductivity, Vol. 13, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2003.812360

On the suppression of Kirkendall porosity in multifilamentary superconducting composites
journal, January 1981


Synchrotron Microtomography Investigation of the Filament Microstructure in Differently Processed Bi-2212 Wires
journal, June 2017

  • Scheuerlein, Christian; Rack, Alexander; Schladitz, Katja
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 27, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2016.2644539

Osteocyte lacuna size and shape in women with and without osteoporotic fracture
journal, April 2004

  • McCreadie, Barbara R.; Hollister, Scott J.; Schaffler, Mitchell B.
  • Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 37, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9290(03)00287-2

Finite-Element Analysis of Transverse Compressive and Thermal Loads on Nb 3 Sn Wires With Voids
journal, June 2016

  • Zhai, Y.; D'Hauthuille, L.; Barth, C.
  • IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 26, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1109/TASC.2016.2535784

Works referencing / citing this record:

Implications of the strain irreversibility cliff on the fabrication of particle-accelerator magnets made of restacked-rod-process Nb3Sn wires
journal, April 2019


Influence of transverse stress exerted at room temperature on the superconducting properties of Nb 3 Sn wires
journal, August 2019

  • Ebermann, P.; Baumgartner, T.; Behnsen, J.
  • Superconductor Science and Technology, Vol. 32, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6668/ab2e51

Evaluation of a practical level of critical current densities in pnictides and recently discovered superconductors
journal, July 2019