# Decoherence in neutrino propagation through matter, and bounds from IceCube/DeepCore

## Abstract

Here, we revisit neutrino oscillations in matter considering the open quantum system framework, which allows to introduce possible decoherence effects generated by New Physics in a phenomenological manner. We assume that the decoherence parameters $$\gamma _{ij}$$ may depend on the neutrino energy, as $$\gamma _{ij}=\gamma _{ij}^{0}(E/\text {GeV})^n\ (n = 0,\pm 1,\pm 2) $$ . The case of non-uniform matter is studied in detail and, in particular, we develop a consistent formalism to study the non-adiabatic case dividing the matter profile into an arbitrary number of layers of constant densities. This formalism is then applied to explore the sensitivity of IceCube and DeepCore to this type of effects. Our study is the first atmospheric neutrino analysis where a consistent treatment of the matter effects in the three-neutrino case is performed in presence of decoherence. We show that matter effects are indeed extremely relevant in this context. We find that IceCube is able to considerably improve over current bounds in the solar sector ( $$\gamma _{21}$$ ) and in the atmospheric sector ( $$\gamma _{31}$$ and $$\gamma _{32}$$ ) for $n=0,1,2$ and, in particular, by several orders of magnitude (between 3 and 9) for the $n=1,2$ cases. For $n=0$ we find $$\gamma _{32},\gamma _{31}< 4.0\times 10^{-24}\, (1.3\times 10^{-24})\ \hbox {GeV}$$ and $$\gamma _{21}<1.3\times 10^{-24}\, (4.1\times 10^{-24})\ \hbox {GeV}$$ at the 95% CL, for normal (inverted) mass ordering.

- Authors:

- Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
- European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)
- Instituto de Física Teorica UAM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain)
- Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

- Publication Date:

- Research Org.:
- Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

- Sponsoring Org.:
- USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)

- OSTI Identifier:
- 1436721

- Report Number(s):
- [arXiv:1803.04438; CERN-TH-2018-041; IFT-UAM/CSIC-18-022; FERMILAB-PUB-18-067-T]

[Journal ID: ISSN 1434-6044; 1662307; TRN: US1900225]

- Grant/Contract Number:
- [AC02-07CH11359]

- Resource Type:
- Accepted Manuscript

- Journal Name:
- European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields

- Additional Journal Information:
- [ Journal Volume: 78; Journal Issue: 8]; Journal ID: ISSN 1434-6044

- Publisher:
- Springer

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

### Citation Formats

```
Coloma, Pilar, Lopez-Pavon, Jacob, Martinez-Soler, Ivan, and Nunokawa, Hiroshi. Decoherence in neutrino propagation through matter, and bounds from IceCube/DeepCore. United States: N. p., 2018.
Web. doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-018-6092-6.
```

```
Coloma, Pilar, Lopez-Pavon, Jacob, Martinez-Soler, Ivan, & Nunokawa, Hiroshi. Decoherence in neutrino propagation through matter, and bounds from IceCube/DeepCore. United States. doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-018-6092-6.
```

```
Coloma, Pilar, Lopez-Pavon, Jacob, Martinez-Soler, Ivan, and Nunokawa, Hiroshi. Wed .
"Decoherence in neutrino propagation through matter, and bounds from IceCube/DeepCore". United States. doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-018-6092-6. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1436721.
```

```
@article{osti_1436721,
```

title = {Decoherence in neutrino propagation through matter, and bounds from IceCube/DeepCore},

author = {Coloma, Pilar and Lopez-Pavon, Jacob and Martinez-Soler, Ivan and Nunokawa, Hiroshi},

abstractNote = {Here, we revisit neutrino oscillations in matter considering the open quantum system framework, which allows to introduce possible decoherence effects generated by New Physics in a phenomenological manner. We assume that the decoherence parameters $\gamma _{ij}$ may depend on the neutrino energy, as $\gamma _{ij}=\gamma _{ij}^{0}(E/\text {GeV})^n\ (n = 0,\pm 1,\pm 2) $ . The case of non-uniform matter is studied in detail and, in particular, we develop a consistent formalism to study the non-adiabatic case dividing the matter profile into an arbitrary number of layers of constant densities. This formalism is then applied to explore the sensitivity of IceCube and DeepCore to this type of effects. Our study is the first atmospheric neutrino analysis where a consistent treatment of the matter effects in the three-neutrino case is performed in presence of decoherence. We show that matter effects are indeed extremely relevant in this context. We find that IceCube is able to considerably improve over current bounds in the solar sector ( $\gamma _{21}$ ) and in the atmospheric sector ( $\gamma _{31}$ and $\gamma _{32}$ ) for $n=0,1,2$ and, in particular, by several orders of magnitude (between 3 and 9) for the $n=1,2$ cases. For $n=0$ we find $\gamma _{32},\gamma _{31}< 4.0\times 10^{-24}\, (1.3\times 10^{-24})\ \hbox {GeV}$ and $\gamma _{21}<1.3\times 10^{-24}\, (4.1\times 10^{-24})\ \hbox {GeV}$ at the 95% CL, for normal (inverted) mass ordering.},

doi = {10.1140/epjc/s10052-018-6092-6},

journal = {European Physical Journal. C, Particles and Fields},

number = [8],

volume = [78],

place = {United States},

year = {2018},

month = {8}

}

*Citation information provided by*

Web of Science

Web of Science

Works referenced in this record:

##
Revisiting the quantum decoherence scenario as an explanation for the LSND anomaly

journal, May 2015

- Bakhti, Pouya; Farzan, Yasaman; Schwetz, Thomas
- Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2015, Issue 5

##
Probing Possible Decoherence Effects in Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations

journal, August 2000

- Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.; Montanino, D.
- Physical Review Letters, Vol. 85, Issue 6

##
Probing quantum decoherence in atmospheric neutrino oscillations with a neutrino telescope

journal, June 2006

- Morgan, Dean; Winstanley, Elizabeth; Brunner, Jurgen
- Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 25, Issue 5

##
Probing quantum decoherence with high-energy neutrinos

journal, March 2005

- Hooper, Dan; Morgan, Dean; Winstanley, Elizabeth
- Physics Letters B, Vol. 609, Issue 3-4

##
Constraints on three-neutrino mixing from atmospheric and reactor data

journal, March 1994

- Pantaleone, J.
- Physical Review D, Vol. 49, Issue 5

##
Open system approach to neutrino oscillations

journal, February 2000

- Benatti, Fabio; Floreanini, Roberto
- Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2000, Issue 02

##
Determining neutrino oscillation parameters from atmospheric muon neutrino disappearance with three years of IceCube DeepCore data

journal, April 2015

- Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.
- Physical Review D, Vol. 91, Issue 7

##
Parameter limits for neutrino oscillation with decoherence in KamLAND

journal, June 2017

- Balieiro Gomes, G.; Guzzo, M. M.; de Holanda, P. C.
- Physical Review D, Vol. 95, Issue 11

##
Probing nonstandard decoherence effects with solar and KamLAND neutrinos

journal, August 2007

- Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.
- Physical Review D, Vol. 76, Issue 3

##
Status of oscillation plus decay of atmospheric and long-baseline neutrinos

journal, June 2008

- Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, Michele
- Physics Letters B, Vol. 663, Issue 5

##
On the generators of quantum dynamical semigroups

journal, June 1976

- Lindblad, G.
- Communications in Mathematical Physics, Vol. 48, Issue 2

##
Quantum dissipation in a neutrino system propagating in vacuum and in matter

journal, July 2016

- Guzzo, Marcelo M.; de Holanda, Pedro C.; Oliveira, Roberto L. N.
- Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 908

##
First Results from KamLAND: Evidence for Reactor Antineutrino Disappearance

journal, January 2003

- Eguchi, K.; Enomoto, S.; Furuno, K.
- Physical Review Letters, Vol. 90, Issue 2

##
Search for violations of quantum mechanics

journal, July 1984

- Ellis, John; Hagelin, John S.; Nanopoulos, D. V.
- Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 241, Issue 2

##
Breakdown of predictability in gravitational collapse

journal, November 1976

- Hawking, S. W.
- Physical Review D, Vol. 14, Issue 10

##
Coherence of neutrino oscillations in the wave packet approach

journal, June 1998

- Giunti, C.; Kim, C. W.
- Physical Review D, Vol. 58, Issue 1

##
Revisiting quantum decoherence for neutrino oscillations in matter with constant density

journal, June 2018

- Carpio, J. A.; Massoni, E.; Gago, A. M.
- Physical Review D, Vol. 97, Issue 11

##
Compact perturbative expressions for neutrino oscillations in matter

journal, June 2016

- Denton, Peter B.; Minakata, Hisakazu; Parke, Stephen J.
- Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2016, Issue 6

##
Difficulties for the evolution of pure states into mixed states

journal, September 1984

- Banks, Thomas; Susskind, Leonard; Peskin, Michael E.
- Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 244, Issue 1

##
Loss of incoherence and determination of coupling constants in quantum gravity

journal, October 1988

- Giddings, Steven B.; Strominger, Andrew
- Nuclear Physics B, Vol. 307, Issue 4

##
Improved Measurement of Muon Antineutrino Disappearance in MINOS

journal, May 2012

- Adamson, P.; Ayres, D. S.; Backhouse, C.
- Physical Review Letters, Vol. 108, Issue 19

##
First Direct Observation of Muon Antineutrino Disappearance

journal, July 2011

- Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Auty, D. J.
- Physical Review Letters, Vol. 107, Issue 2

##
Quantum dissipation and $CP$ violation in MINOS

journal, March 2014

- Oliveira, R. L. N.; Guzzo, M. M.; de Holanda, P. C.
- Physical Review D, Vol. 89, Issue 5

##
Preliminary reference Earth model

journal, June 1981

- Dziewonski, Adam M.; Anderson, Don L.
- Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Vol. 25, Issue 4

##
Decoherence, matter effect, and neutrino hierarchy signature in long baseline experiments

journal, November 2017

- Coelho, João A. B.; Mann, W. Anthony
- Physical Review D, Vol. 96, Issue 9

##
Dissipative effect in long baseline neutrino experiments

journal, July 2016

- Oliveira, Roberto L. N.
- The European Physical Journal C, Vol. 76, Issue 7

##
1-3 leptonic mixing and the neutrino oscillograms of the Earth

journal, May 2007

- Akhmedov, Evgeny Kh; Maltoni, Michele; Smirnov, Alexei Yu
- Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2007, Issue 05

##
Reconciling results of LSND, MiniBooNE and other experiments with soft decoherence

journal, July 2008

- Farzan, Yasaman; Schwetz, Thomas; Smirnov, Alexei Yu
- Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2008, Issue 07

##
Atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the NRLMSISE-00 atmospheric model

journal, July 2015

- Honda, M.; Athar, M. Sajjad; Kajita, T.
- Physical Review D, Vol. 92, Issue 2

##
Updated fit to three neutrino mixing: exploring the accelerator-reactor complementarity

journal, January 2017

- Esteban, Ivan; Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, Michele
- Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2017, Issue 1

##
Nonmaximal ${\theta}_{23}$ Mixing at NOvA from Neutrino Decoherence

journal, May 2017

- Coelho, João A. B.; Mann, W. Anthony; Bashar, Saqib S.
- Physical Review Letters, Vol. 118, Issue 22

##
Measurement of the Neutrino Mass Splitting and Flavor Mixing by MINOS

journal, May 2011

- Adamson, P.; Andreopoulos, C.; Armstrong, R.
- Physical Review Letters, Vol. 106, Issue 18

##
Quantum dissipative effects and neutrinos: Current constraints and future perspectives

journal, February 2001

- Gago, A. M.; Santos, E. M.; Teves, W. J. C.
- Physical Review D, Vol. 63, Issue 7