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Title: Rapidly evolving transients in the Dark Energy Survey

Abstract

We present the results of a search for rapidly evolving transients in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Programme. These events are characterized by fast light curve evolution (rise to peak in $$\lesssim 10$$ d and exponential decline in $$\lesssim30$$ d after peak). We discovered 72 events, including 37 transients with a spectroscopic redshift from host galaxy spectral features. The 37 events increase the total number of rapid optical transients by more than factor of two. They are found at a wide range of redshifts ($$0.05M_\mathrm{g}>-22.25$$). The multiband photometry is well fit by a blackbody up to few weeks after peak. The events appear to be hot ($$T\approx10000-30000$$ K) and large ($$R\approx 10^{14}-2\cdot10^{15}$$ cm) at peak, and generally expand and cool in time, though some events show evidence for a receding photosphere with roughly constant temperature. Spectra taken around peak are dominated by a blue featureless continuum consistent with hot, optically thick ejecta. We compare our events with a previously suggested physical scenario involving shock breakout in an optically thick wind surrounding a core-collapse supernova (CCSNe), we conclude that current models for such a scenario might need an additional power source to describe the exponential decline. We find these transients tend to favor star-forming host galaxies, which could be consistent with a core-collapse origin. In conclusion, more detailed modeling of the light curves is necessary to determine their physical origin.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [7];  [1]; ORCiD logo [5];  [5]; ORCiD logo [1];  [9];  [5];  [10] more »;  [11];  [12];  [5];  [13];  [14];  [8];  [13];  [14];  [13];  [15];  [1]; ORCiD logo [13];  [16];  [17];  [18];  [18]; ORCiD logo [14];  [19];  [18];  [20];  [21];  [22];  [23];  [24];  [25];  [25];  [26];  [18];  [19];  [27];  [18];  [24];  [28];  [29]; ORCiD logo [20];  [22];  [18];  [30];  [3];  [31];  [32];  [3];  [18];  [28];  [33];  [21];  [34];  [22];  [21];  [35];  [20];  [26];  [18];  [36];  [16]; ORCiD logo [37];  [38]; ORCiD logo [39];  [40];  [41];  [18];  [16] « less
  1. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
  2. ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO); School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia
  3. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
  4. ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO); School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia; Centre for Astrophysics, Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122, Australia
  5. School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia
  6. ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO)
  7. Centre for Astrophysics, Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122, Australia
  8. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
  9. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  10. Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia
  11. Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
  12. Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia; The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2601, Australia
  13. ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO); The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2601, Australia
  14. Institute of Cosmology, Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, UK
  15. ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO); Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangshu 210008, China
  16. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile
  17. Department of Physics, Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK; Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa
  18. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA
  19. Department of Physics, Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
  20. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics, Cosmology, P. O. Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  21. Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400, Brazil; Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400, Brazil
  22. Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA; National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark St., Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  23. Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain
  24. Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), 08193 Barcelona, Spain; Institute of Space Sciences (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, s/n, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
  25. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics, Cosmology, P. O. Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
  26. Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), 28040 Madrid, Spain
  27. Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065, USA; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
  28. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA; Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA
  29. Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
  30. Department of Physics, Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK; Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland
  31. Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA; Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
  32. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
  33. Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400, Brazil; Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, São Paulo SP 05314-970, Brazil
  34. Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA; Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
  35. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
  36. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  37. Physics Department, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02453, USA
  38. Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400, Brazil; Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas SP 13083-859, Brazil
  39. Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
  40. National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark St., Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  41. Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21)
Contributing Org.:
DES Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1436720
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1479697
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1803.04869; FERMILAB-PUB-18-068-PPD
Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711; 1662356; TRN: US1900224
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 481; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; supernovae: general

Citation Formats

Pursiainen, M., Childress, M., Smith, M., Prajs, S., Sullivan, M., Davis, T. M., Foley, R. J., Asorey, J., Calcino, J., Carollo, D., Curtin, C., D’Andrea, C. B., Glazebrook, K., Gutierrez, C., Hinton, S. R., Hoormann, J. K., Inserra, C., Kessler, R., King, A., Kuehn, K., Lewis, G. F., Lidman, C., Macaulay, E., Möller, A., Nichol, R. C., Sako, M., Sommer, N. E., Swann, E., Tucker, B. E., Uddin, S. A., Wiseman, P., Zhang, B., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F B, Allam, S., Annis, J., Avila, S., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Carnero Rosell, A., Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., Castander, F J, Cunha, C. E., Davis, C., De Vicente, J., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gutierrez, G., Hartley, W. G., Hollowood, D L, Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Jeltema, T., Kuropatkin, N., Li, T. S., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Martini, P., Menanteau, F., Ogando, R. L. C., Plazas, A. A., Roodman, A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Smith, R. C., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Tucker, D. L., and Walker, A. R. Rapidly evolving transients in the Dark Energy Survey. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/sty2309.
Pursiainen, M., Childress, M., Smith, M., Prajs, S., Sullivan, M., Davis, T. M., Foley, R. J., Asorey, J., Calcino, J., Carollo, D., Curtin, C., D’Andrea, C. B., Glazebrook, K., Gutierrez, C., Hinton, S. R., Hoormann, J. K., Inserra, C., Kessler, R., King, A., Kuehn, K., Lewis, G. F., Lidman, C., Macaulay, E., Möller, A., Nichol, R. C., Sako, M., Sommer, N. E., Swann, E., Tucker, B. E., Uddin, S. A., Wiseman, P., Zhang, B., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F B, Allam, S., Annis, J., Avila, S., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Carnero Rosell, A., Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., Castander, F J, Cunha, C. E., Davis, C., De Vicente, J., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gutierrez, G., Hartley, W. G., Hollowood, D L, Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Jeltema, T., Kuropatkin, N., Li, T. S., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Martini, P., Menanteau, F., Ogando, R. L. C., Plazas, A. A., Roodman, A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Smith, R. C., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Tucker, D. L., & Walker, A. R. Rapidly evolving transients in the Dark Energy Survey. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/sty2309.
Pursiainen, M., Childress, M., Smith, M., Prajs, S., Sullivan, M., Davis, T. M., Foley, R. J., Asorey, J., Calcino, J., Carollo, D., Curtin, C., D’Andrea, C. B., Glazebrook, K., Gutierrez, C., Hinton, S. R., Hoormann, J. K., Inserra, C., Kessler, R., King, A., Kuehn, K., Lewis, G. F., Lidman, C., Macaulay, E., Möller, A., Nichol, R. C., Sako, M., Sommer, N. E., Swann, E., Tucker, B. E., Uddin, S. A., Wiseman, P., Zhang, B., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F B, Allam, S., Annis, J., Avila, S., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Carnero Rosell, A., Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., Castander, F J, Cunha, C. E., Davis, C., De Vicente, J., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gutierrez, G., Hartley, W. G., Hollowood, D L, Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Jeltema, T., Kuropatkin, N., Li, T. S., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Martini, P., Menanteau, F., Ogando, R. L. C., Plazas, A. A., Roodman, A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Smith, R. C., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Tucker, D. L., and Walker, A. R. Wed . "Rapidly evolving transients in the Dark Energy Survey". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/sty2309. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1436720.
@article{osti_1436720,
title = {Rapidly evolving transients in the Dark Energy Survey},
author = {Pursiainen, M. and Childress, M. and Smith, M. and Prajs, S. and Sullivan, M. and Davis, T. M. and Foley, R. J. and Asorey, J. and Calcino, J. and Carollo, D. and Curtin, C. and D’Andrea, C. B. and Glazebrook, K. and Gutierrez, C. and Hinton, S. R. and Hoormann, J. K. and Inserra, C. and Kessler, R. and King, A. and Kuehn, K. and Lewis, G. F. and Lidman, C. and Macaulay, E. and Möller, A. and Nichol, R. C. and Sako, M. and Sommer, N. E. and Swann, E. and Tucker, B. E. and Uddin, S. A. and Wiseman, P. and Zhang, B. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Abdalla, F B and Allam, S. and Annis, J. and Avila, S. and Brooks, D. and Buckley-Geer, E. and Burke, D. L. and Carnero Rosell, A. and Carrasco Kind, M. and Carretero, J. and Castander, F J and Cunha, C. E. and Davis, C. and De Vicente, J. and Diehl, H. T. and Doel, P. and Eifler, T. F. and Flaugher, B. and Fosalba, P. and Frieman, J. and García-Bellido, J. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gutierrez, G. and Hartley, W. G. and Hollowood, D L and Honscheid, K. and James, D. J. and Jeltema, T. and Kuropatkin, N. and Li, T. S. and Lima, M. and Maia, M. A. G. and Martini, P. and Menanteau, F. and Ogando, R. L. C. and Plazas, A. A. and Roodman, A. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Schindler, R. and Smith, R. C. and Soares-Santos, M. and Sobreira, F. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G. and Tucker, D. L. and Walker, A. R.},
abstractNote = {We present the results of a search for rapidly evolving transients in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Programme. These events are characterized by fast light curve evolution (rise to peak in $\lesssim 10$ d and exponential decline in $\lesssim30$ d after peak). We discovered 72 events, including 37 transients with a spectroscopic redshift from host galaxy spectral features. The 37 events increase the total number of rapid optical transients by more than factor of two. They are found at a wide range of redshifts ($0.05M_\mathrm{g}>-22.25$). The multiband photometry is well fit by a blackbody up to few weeks after peak. The events appear to be hot ($T\approx10000-30000$ K) and large ($R\approx 10^{14}-2\cdot10^{15}$ cm) at peak, and generally expand and cool in time, though some events show evidence for a receding photosphere with roughly constant temperature. Spectra taken around peak are dominated by a blue featureless continuum consistent with hot, optically thick ejecta. We compare our events with a previously suggested physical scenario involving shock breakout in an optically thick wind surrounding a core-collapse supernova (CCSNe), we conclude that current models for such a scenario might need an additional power source to describe the exponential decline. We find these transients tend to favor star-forming host galaxies, which could be consistent with a core-collapse origin. In conclusion, more detailed modeling of the light curves is necessary to determine their physical origin.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/sty2309},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 1,
volume = 481,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

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  • Wheeler, J. C.; Barker, E.; Benjamin, R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 417
  • DOI: 10.1086/187097

iPTF 16asu: A Luminous, Rapidly Evolving, and High-velocity Supernova
journal, December 2017

  • Whitesides, L.; Lunnan, R.; Kasliwal, M. M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 851, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aa99de

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Technical Summary
journal, September 2000

  • York, Donald G.; Adelman, J.; Anderson, Jr., John E.
  • The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 120, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1086/301513

OzDES multifibre spectroscopy for the Dark Energy Survey: first-year operation and results
journal, July 2015

  • Yuan, Fang; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 452, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1507

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The Hyper Suprime-Cam SSP transient survey in COSMOS: Overview
    journal, May 2019

    • Yasuda, Naoki; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tominaga, Nozomu
    • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Vol. 71, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psz050