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Title: Search for neutron-antineutron oscillations at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

Abstract

Tests on B–L symmetry breaking models are important probes to search for new physics. One proposed model with Δ( B–L)=2 involves the oscillations of a neutron to an antineutron. In this paper, a new limit on this process is derived for the data acquired from all three operational phases of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment. The search concentrated on oscillations occurring within the deuteron, and 23 events were observed against a background expectation of 30.5 events. These translated to a lower limit on the nuclear lifetime of 1.48×10 31 yr at 90% C.L. when no restriction was placed on the signal likelihood space (unbounded). Alternatively, a lower limit on the nuclear lifetime was found to be 1.18×10 31 yr at 90% C.L. when the signal was forced into a positive likelihood space (bounded). Values for the free oscillation time derived from various models are also provided in this article. As a result, this is the first search for neutron-antineutron oscillation with the deuteron as a target.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP) (SC-26)
Contributing Org.:
[SNO Collaboration]
OSTI Identifier:
1436259
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1409462; OSTI ID: 1414153; OSTI ID: 1420128; OSTI ID: 1426135; OSTI ID: 1430701
Report Number(s):
[BNL-203612-2018-JAAM; LA-UR-17-23149; LLNL-JRNL-728820]
[Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010; PRVDAQ; TRN: US1900164]
Grant/Contract Number:  
[SC0012704; FG02-88ER40479; AC52-07NA27344; LLNL-JRNL-728820; AC52-06NA25396; AC02-05CH11231; AC05-76RL01830]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 96; Journal Issue: 9]; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; Atomic and Nuclear Physics

Citation Formats

Aharmim, B., Ahmed, S. N., Anthony, A. E., Barros, N., Beier, E. W., Bellerive, A., Beltran, B., Bergevin, M., Biller, S. D., Boudjemline, K., Boulay, M. G., Cai, B., Chan, Y. D., Chauhan, D., Chen, M., Cleveland, B. T., Cox, G. A., Dai, X., Deng, H., Detwiler, J. A., Doe, P. J., Doucas, G., Drouin, P. -L., Duncan, F. A., Dunford, M., Earle, E. D., Elliott, S. R., Evans, H. C., Ewan, G. T., Farine, J., Fergani, H., Fleurot, F., Ford, R. J., Formaggio, J. A., Gagnon, N., Goon, J. TM., Graham, K., Guillian, E., Habib, S., Hahn, R. L., Hallin, A. L., Hallman, E. D., Harvey, P. J., Hazama, R., Heintzelman, W. J., Heise, J., Helmer, R. L., Hime, A., Howard, C., Huang, M., Jagam, P., Jamieson, B., Jelley, N. A., Jerkins, M., Keeter, K. J., Klein, J. R., Kormos, L. L., Kos, M., Krüger, A., Kraus, C., Krauss, C. B., Kutter, T., Kyba, C. C. M., Lange, R., Law, J., Lawson, I. T., Lesko, K. T., Leslie, J. R., Levine, I., Loach, J. C., MacLellan, R., Majerus, S., Mak, H. B., Maneira, J., Martin, R. D., McCauley, N., McDonald, A. B., McGee, S. R., Miller, M. L., Monreal, B., Monroe, J., Nickel, B. G., Noble, A. J., O’Keeffe, H. M., Oblath, N. S., Okada, C. E., Ollerhead, R. W., Orebi Gann, G. D., Oser, S. M., Ott, R. A., Peeters, S. J. M., Poon, A. W. P., Prior, G., Reitzner, S. D., Rielage, K., Robertson, B. C., Robertson, R. G. H., Schwendener, M. H., Secrest, J. A., Seibert, S. R., Simard, O., Simpson, J. J., Sinclair, D., Skensved, P., Sonley, T. J., Stonehill, L. C., Tešić, G., Tolich, N., Tsui, T., Van Berg, R., VanDevender, B. A., Virtue, C. J., Wall, B. L., Waller, D., Wan Chan Tseung, H., Wark, D. L., Wendland, J., West, N., Wilkerson, J. F., Wilson, J. R., Wright, A., Yeh, M., Zhang, F., and Zuber, K. Search for neutron-antineutron oscillations at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.092005.
Aharmim, B., Ahmed, S. N., Anthony, A. E., Barros, N., Beier, E. W., Bellerive, A., Beltran, B., Bergevin, M., Biller, S. D., Boudjemline, K., Boulay, M. G., Cai, B., Chan, Y. D., Chauhan, D., Chen, M., Cleveland, B. T., Cox, G. A., Dai, X., Deng, H., Detwiler, J. A., Doe, P. J., Doucas, G., Drouin, P. -L., Duncan, F. A., Dunford, M., Earle, E. D., Elliott, S. R., Evans, H. C., Ewan, G. T., Farine, J., Fergani, H., Fleurot, F., Ford, R. J., Formaggio, J. A., Gagnon, N., Goon, J. TM., Graham, K., Guillian, E., Habib, S., Hahn, R. L., Hallin, A. L., Hallman, E. D., Harvey, P. J., Hazama, R., Heintzelman, W. J., Heise, J., Helmer, R. L., Hime, A., Howard, C., Huang, M., Jagam, P., Jamieson, B., Jelley, N. A., Jerkins, M., Keeter, K. J., Klein, J. R., Kormos, L. L., Kos, M., Krüger, A., Kraus, C., Krauss, C. B., Kutter, T., Kyba, C. C. M., Lange, R., Law, J., Lawson, I. T., Lesko, K. T., Leslie, J. R., Levine, I., Loach, J. C., MacLellan, R., Majerus, S., Mak, H. B., Maneira, J., Martin, R. D., McCauley, N., McDonald, A. B., McGee, S. R., Miller, M. L., Monreal, B., Monroe, J., Nickel, B. G., Noble, A. J., O’Keeffe, H. M., Oblath, N. S., Okada, C. E., Ollerhead, R. W., Orebi Gann, G. D., Oser, S. M., Ott, R. A., Peeters, S. J. M., Poon, A. W. P., Prior, G., Reitzner, S. D., Rielage, K., Robertson, B. C., Robertson, R. G. H., Schwendener, M. H., Secrest, J. A., Seibert, S. R., Simard, O., Simpson, J. J., Sinclair, D., Skensved, P., Sonley, T. J., Stonehill, L. C., Tešić, G., Tolich, N., Tsui, T., Van Berg, R., VanDevender, B. A., Virtue, C. J., Wall, B. L., Waller, D., Wan Chan Tseung, H., Wark, D. L., Wendland, J., West, N., Wilkerson, J. F., Wilson, J. R., Wright, A., Yeh, M., Zhang, F., & Zuber, K. Search for neutron-antineutron oscillations at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.092005.
Aharmim, B., Ahmed, S. N., Anthony, A. E., Barros, N., Beier, E. W., Bellerive, A., Beltran, B., Bergevin, M., Biller, S. D., Boudjemline, K., Boulay, M. G., Cai, B., Chan, Y. D., Chauhan, D., Chen, M., Cleveland, B. T., Cox, G. A., Dai, X., Deng, H., Detwiler, J. A., Doe, P. J., Doucas, G., Drouin, P. -L., Duncan, F. A., Dunford, M., Earle, E. D., Elliott, S. R., Evans, H. C., Ewan, G. T., Farine, J., Fergani, H., Fleurot, F., Ford, R. J., Formaggio, J. A., Gagnon, N., Goon, J. TM., Graham, K., Guillian, E., Habib, S., Hahn, R. L., Hallin, A. L., Hallman, E. D., Harvey, P. J., Hazama, R., Heintzelman, W. J., Heise, J., Helmer, R. L., Hime, A., Howard, C., Huang, M., Jagam, P., Jamieson, B., Jelley, N. A., Jerkins, M., Keeter, K. J., Klein, J. R., Kormos, L. L., Kos, M., Krüger, A., Kraus, C., Krauss, C. B., Kutter, T., Kyba, C. C. M., Lange, R., Law, J., Lawson, I. T., Lesko, K. T., Leslie, J. R., Levine, I., Loach, J. C., MacLellan, R., Majerus, S., Mak, H. B., Maneira, J., Martin, R. D., McCauley, N., McDonald, A. B., McGee, S. R., Miller, M. L., Monreal, B., Monroe, J., Nickel, B. G., Noble, A. J., O’Keeffe, H. M., Oblath, N. S., Okada, C. E., Ollerhead, R. W., Orebi Gann, G. D., Oser, S. M., Ott, R. A., Peeters, S. J. M., Poon, A. W. P., Prior, G., Reitzner, S. D., Rielage, K., Robertson, B. C., Robertson, R. G. H., Schwendener, M. H., Secrest, J. A., Seibert, S. R., Simard, O., Simpson, J. J., Sinclair, D., Skensved, P., Sonley, T. J., Stonehill, L. C., Tešić, G., Tolich, N., Tsui, T., Van Berg, R., VanDevender, B. A., Virtue, C. J., Wall, B. L., Waller, D., Wan Chan Tseung, H., Wark, D. L., Wendland, J., West, N., Wilkerson, J. F., Wilson, J. R., Wright, A., Yeh, M., Zhang, F., and Zuber, K. Mon . "Search for neutron-antineutron oscillations at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.092005. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1436259.
@article{osti_1436259,
title = {Search for neutron-antineutron oscillations at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory},
author = {Aharmim, B. and Ahmed, S. N. and Anthony, A. E. and Barros, N. and Beier, E. W. and Bellerive, A. and Beltran, B. and Bergevin, M. and Biller, S. D. and Boudjemline, K. and Boulay, M. G. and Cai, B. and Chan, Y. D. and Chauhan, D. and Chen, M. and Cleveland, B. T. and Cox, G. A. and Dai, X. and Deng, H. and Detwiler, J. A. and Doe, P. J. and Doucas, G. and Drouin, P. -L. and Duncan, F. A. and Dunford, M. and Earle, E. D. and Elliott, S. R. and Evans, H. C. and Ewan, G. T. and Farine, J. and Fergani, H. and Fleurot, F. and Ford, R. J. and Formaggio, J. A. and Gagnon, N. and Goon, J. TM. and Graham, K. and Guillian, E. and Habib, S. and Hahn, R. L. and Hallin, A. L. and Hallman, E. D. and Harvey, P. J. and Hazama, R. and Heintzelman, W. J. and Heise, J. and Helmer, R. L. and Hime, A. and Howard, C. and Huang, M. and Jagam, P. and Jamieson, B. and Jelley, N. A. and Jerkins, M. and Keeter, K. J. and Klein, J. R. and Kormos, L. L. and Kos, M. and Krüger, A. and Kraus, C. and Krauss, C. B. and Kutter, T. and Kyba, C. C. M. and Lange, R. and Law, J. and Lawson, I. T. and Lesko, K. T. and Leslie, J. R. and Levine, I. and Loach, J. C. and MacLellan, R. and Majerus, S. and Mak, H. B. and Maneira, J. and Martin, R. D. and McCauley, N. and McDonald, A. B. and McGee, S. R. and Miller, M. L. and Monreal, B. and Monroe, J. and Nickel, B. G. and Noble, A. J. and O’Keeffe, H. M. and Oblath, N. S. and Okada, C. E. and Ollerhead, R. W. and Orebi Gann, G. D. and Oser, S. M. and Ott, R. A. and Peeters, S. J. M. and Poon, A. W. P. and Prior, G. and Reitzner, S. D. and Rielage, K. and Robertson, B. C. and Robertson, R. G. H. and Schwendener, M. H. and Secrest, J. A. and Seibert, S. R. and Simard, O. and Simpson, J. J. and Sinclair, D. and Skensved, P. and Sonley, T. J. and Stonehill, L. C. and Tešić, G. and Tolich, N. and Tsui, T. and Van Berg, R. and VanDevender, B. A. and Virtue, C. J. and Wall, B. L. and Waller, D. and Wan Chan Tseung, H. and Wark, D. L. and Wendland, J. and West, N. and Wilkerson, J. F. and Wilson, J. R. and Wright, A. and Yeh, M. and Zhang, F. and Zuber, K.},
abstractNote = {Tests on B–L symmetry breaking models are important probes to search for new physics. One proposed model with Δ(B–L)=2 involves the oscillations of a neutron to an antineutron. In this paper, a new limit on this process is derived for the data acquired from all three operational phases of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment. The search concentrated on oscillations occurring within the deuteron, and 23 events were observed against a background expectation of 30.5 events. These translated to a lower limit on the nuclear lifetime of 1.48×1031 yr at 90% C.L. when no restriction was placed on the signal likelihood space (unbounded). Alternatively, a lower limit on the nuclear lifetime was found to be 1.18×1031 yr at 90% C.L. when the signal was forced into a positive likelihood space (bounded). Values for the free oscillation time derived from various models are also provided in this article. As a result, this is the first search for neutron-antineutron oscillation with the deuteron as a target.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.96.092005},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = [9],
volume = [96],
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {11}
}

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