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Title: Electrical control of 2D magnetism in bilayer CrI3

Abstract

Controlling magnetism via electric fields addresses fundamental questions of magnetic phenomena and phase transitions, and enables the development of electrically coupled spintronic devices, such as voltage-controlled magnetic memories with low operation energy. Previous studies on dilute magnetic semiconductors such as (Ga,Mn)As and (In,Mn)Sb have demonstrated large modulations of the Curie temperatures and coercive fields by altering the magnetic anisotropy and exchange interaction. Owing to their unique magnetic properties, the recently reported two-dimensional magnets provide a new system for studying these features. For instance, a bilayer of chromium triiodide (CrI3) behaves as a layered antiferromagnet with a magnetic field-driven metamagnetic transition. Here, we demonstrate electrostatic gate control of magnetism in CrI3 bilayers, probed by magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) microscopy. At fixed magnetic fields near the metamagnetic transition, we realize voltage-controlled switching between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic states. At zero magnetic field, we demonstrate a time-reversal pair of layered antiferromagnetic states that exhibit spin-layer locking, leading to a linear dependence of their MOKE signals on gate voltage with opposite slopes. Here, our results allow for the exploration of new magnetoelectric phenomena and van der Waals spintronics based on 2D materials.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [4];  [1];  [5];  [6];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  2. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  3. Univ. de Valencia, Paterna (Spain)
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  5. Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
  6. Univ. of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Center for Excitonics (CE); Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1436027
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Nanotechnology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 30; Journal ID: ISSN 1748-3387
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Electronic devices; Ferromagnetism; Magnetic devices; Magnetic properties and materials; Magneto-optics

Citation Formats

Huang, Bevin, Clark, Genevieve, Klein, Dahlia R., MacNeill, David, Navarro-Moratalla, Efren, Seyler, Kyle L., Wilson, Nathan, McGuire, Michael A., Cobden, David H., Xiao, Di, Yao, Wang, Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo, and Xu, Xiaodong. Electrical control of 2D magnetism in bilayer CrI3. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1038/s41565-018-0121-3.
Huang, Bevin, Clark, Genevieve, Klein, Dahlia R., MacNeill, David, Navarro-Moratalla, Efren, Seyler, Kyle L., Wilson, Nathan, McGuire, Michael A., Cobden, David H., Xiao, Di, Yao, Wang, Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo, & Xu, Xiaodong. Electrical control of 2D magnetism in bilayer CrI3. United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-018-0121-3
Huang, Bevin, Clark, Genevieve, Klein, Dahlia R., MacNeill, David, Navarro-Moratalla, Efren, Seyler, Kyle L., Wilson, Nathan, McGuire, Michael A., Cobden, David H., Xiao, Di, Yao, Wang, Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo, and Xu, Xiaodong. Mon . "Electrical control of 2D magnetism in bilayer CrI3". United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-018-0121-3. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1436027.
@article{osti_1436027,
title = {Electrical control of 2D magnetism in bilayer CrI3},
author = {Huang, Bevin and Clark, Genevieve and Klein, Dahlia R. and MacNeill, David and Navarro-Moratalla, Efren and Seyler, Kyle L. and Wilson, Nathan and McGuire, Michael A. and Cobden, David H. and Xiao, Di and Yao, Wang and Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo and Xu, Xiaodong},
abstractNote = {Controlling magnetism via electric fields addresses fundamental questions of magnetic phenomena and phase transitions, and enables the development of electrically coupled spintronic devices, such as voltage-controlled magnetic memories with low operation energy. Previous studies on dilute magnetic semiconductors such as (Ga,Mn)As and (In,Mn)Sb have demonstrated large modulations of the Curie temperatures and coercive fields by altering the magnetic anisotropy and exchange interaction. Owing to their unique magnetic properties, the recently reported two-dimensional magnets provide a new system for studying these features. For instance, a bilayer of chromium triiodide (CrI3) behaves as a layered antiferromagnet with a magnetic field-driven metamagnetic transition. Here, we demonstrate electrostatic gate control of magnetism in CrI3 bilayers, probed by magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) microscopy. At fixed magnetic fields near the metamagnetic transition, we realize voltage-controlled switching between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic states. At zero magnetic field, we demonstrate a time-reversal pair of layered antiferromagnetic states that exhibit spin-layer locking, leading to a linear dependence of their MOKE signals on gate voltage with opposite slopes. Here, our results allow for the exploration of new magnetoelectric phenomena and van der Waals spintronics based on 2D materials.},
doi = {10.1038/s41565-018-0121-3},
journal = {Nature Nanotechnology},
number = 30,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}

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Multiferroicity in atomic van der Waals heterostructures
journal, June 2019


High mobility in a van der Waals layered antiferromagnetic metal
journal, February 2020


Magnetic Proximity Effect in 2D Ferromagnetic CrBr3/Graphene van der Waals Heterostructures
preprint, January 2019