skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Electrical control of 2D magnetism in bilayer CrI3

Abstract

Controlling magnetism via electric fields addresses fundamental questions of magnetic phenomena and phase transitions, and enables the development of electrically coupled spintronic devices, such as voltage-controlled magnetic memories with low operation energy. Previous studies on dilute magnetic semiconductors such as (Ga,Mn)As and (In,Mn)Sb have demonstrated large modulations of the Curie temperatures and coercive fields by altering the magnetic anisotropy and exchange interaction. Owing to their unique magnetic properties, the recently reported two-dimensional magnets provide a new system for studying these features. For instance, a bilayer of chromium triiodide (CrI3) behaves as a layered antiferromagnet with a magnetic field-driven metamagnetic transition. Here, we demonstrate electrostatic gate control of magnetism in CrI3 bilayers, probed by magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) microscopy. At fixed magnetic fields near the metamagnetic transition, we realize voltage-controlled switching between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic states. At zero magnetic field, we demonstrate a time-reversal pair of layered antiferromagnetic states that exhibit spin-layer locking, leading to a linear dependence of their MOKE signals on gate voltage with opposite slopes. Here, our results allow for the exploration of new magnetoelectric phenomena and van der Waals spintronics based on 2D materials.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [4];  [1];  [5];  [6];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  2. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  3. Univ. de Valencia, Paterna (Spain)
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  5. Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
  6. Univ. of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC) (United States). Center for Excitonics (CE); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES)
OSTI Identifier:
1436027
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Nanotechnology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 30; Journal ID: ISSN 1748-3387
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Electronic devices; Ferromagnetism; Magnetic devices; Magnetic properties and materials; Magneto-optics

Citation Formats

Huang, Bevin, Clark, Genevieve, Klein, Dahlia R., MacNeill, David, Navarro-Moratalla, Efren, Seyler, Kyle L., Wilson, Nathan, McGuire, Michael A., Cobden, David H., Xiao, Di, Yao, Wang, Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo, and Xu, Xiaodong. Electrical control of 2D magnetism in bilayer CrI3. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-018-0121-3.
Huang, Bevin, Clark, Genevieve, Klein, Dahlia R., MacNeill, David, Navarro-Moratalla, Efren, Seyler, Kyle L., Wilson, Nathan, McGuire, Michael A., Cobden, David H., Xiao, Di, Yao, Wang, Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo, & Xu, Xiaodong. Electrical control of 2D magnetism in bilayer CrI3. United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-018-0121-3
Huang, Bevin, Clark, Genevieve, Klein, Dahlia R., MacNeill, David, Navarro-Moratalla, Efren, Seyler, Kyle L., Wilson, Nathan, McGuire, Michael A., Cobden, David H., Xiao, Di, Yao, Wang, Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo, and Xu, Xiaodong. Mon . "Electrical control of 2D magnetism in bilayer CrI3". United States. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-018-0121-3. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1436027.
@article{osti_1436027,
title = {Electrical control of 2D magnetism in bilayer CrI3},
author = {Huang, Bevin and Clark, Genevieve and Klein, Dahlia R. and MacNeill, David and Navarro-Moratalla, Efren and Seyler, Kyle L. and Wilson, Nathan and McGuire, Michael A. and Cobden, David H. and Xiao, Di and Yao, Wang and Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo and Xu, Xiaodong},
abstractNote = {Controlling magnetism via electric fields addresses fundamental questions of magnetic phenomena and phase transitions, and enables the development of electrically coupled spintronic devices, such as voltage-controlled magnetic memories with low operation energy. Previous studies on dilute magnetic semiconductors such as (Ga,Mn)As and (In,Mn)Sb have demonstrated large modulations of the Curie temperatures and coercive fields by altering the magnetic anisotropy and exchange interaction. Owing to their unique magnetic properties, the recently reported two-dimensional magnets provide a new system for studying these features. For instance, a bilayer of chromium triiodide (CrI3) behaves as a layered antiferromagnet with a magnetic field-driven metamagnetic transition. Here, we demonstrate electrostatic gate control of magnetism in CrI3 bilayers, probed by magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) microscopy. At fixed magnetic fields near the metamagnetic transition, we realize voltage-controlled switching between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic states. At zero magnetic field, we demonstrate a time-reversal pair of layered antiferromagnetic states that exhibit spin-layer locking, leading to a linear dependence of their MOKE signals on gate voltage with opposite slopes. Here, our results allow for the exploration of new magnetoelectric phenomena and van der Waals spintronics based on 2D materials.},
doi = {10.1038/s41565-018-0121-3},
journal = {Nature Nanotechnology},
number = 30,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 85 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Discovery of intrinsic ferromagnetism in two-dimensional van der Waals crystals
journal, April 2017


Giant Modification of the Magnetocrystalline Anisotropy in Transition-Metal Monolayers by an External Electric Field
journal, May 2009


Quantum Hall effect and Landau-level crossing of Dirac fermions in trilayer graphene
journal, June 2011

  • Taychatanapat, Thiti; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 7, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2008

Surface Magnetoelectric Effect in Ferromagnetic Metal Films
journal, September 2008


Measurement of Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect Using Piezo-Birefringent Modulator
journal, December 1981


Electric-field control of ferromagnetism
journal, December 2000

  • Ohno, H.; Chiba, D.; Matsukura, F.
  • Nature, Vol. 408, Issue 6815
  • DOI: 10.1038/35050040

Electric Field-Induced Modification of Magnetism in Thin-Film Ferromagnets
journal, January 2007


Coupling of Crystal Structure and Magnetism in the Layered, Ferromagnetic Insulator CrI 3
journal, January 2015

  • McGuire, Michael A.; Dixit, Hemant; Cooper, Valentino R.
  • Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1021/cm504242t

Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene
journal, June 2009

  • Zhang, Yuanbo; Tang, Tsung-Ta; Girit, Caglar
  • Nature, Vol. 459, Issue 7248
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature08105

Is There an Intrinsic Limit to the Charge-Carrier-Induced Increase of the Curie Temperature of EuO?
journal, December 2010


Magnetoelectric effects and valley-controlled spin quantum gates in transition metal dichalcogenide bilayers
journal, June 2013

  • Gong, Zhirui; Liu, Gui-Bin; Yu, Hongyi
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 4, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3053

Magnetization vector manipulation by electric fields
journal, September 2008


One-Dimensional Electrical Contact to a Two-Dimensional Material
journal, October 2013


Ising-Type Magnetic Ordering in Atomically Thin FePS 3
journal, November 2016


Epitaxial integration of the highly spin-polarized ferromagnetic semiconductor EuO with silicon and GaN
journal, September 2007

  • Schmehl, Andreas; Vaithyanathan, Venu; Herrnberger, Alexander
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2012

Ferromagnetic semiconductors: moving beyond (Ga,Mn)As
journal, March 2005

  • MacDonald, A. H.; Schiffer, P.; Samarth, N.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 4, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1325

Layer-dependent ferromagnetism in a van der Waals crystal down to the monolayer limit
journal, June 2017

  • Huang, Bevin; Clark, Genevieve; Navarro-Moratalla, Efrén
  • Nature, Vol. 546, Issue 7657
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature22391

Magnetoelectronics
journal, November 1998


Electric field effect in multilayer Cr 2 Ge 2 Te 6 : a ferromagnetic 2D material
journal, May 2017


Spin–layer locking effects in optical orientation of exciton spin in bilayer WSe2
journal, January 2014

  • Jones, Aaron M.; Yu, Hongyi; Ross, Jason S.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 10, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2848

Gate-Controllable Magneto-optic Kerr Effect in Layered Collinear Antiferromagnets
journal, December 2016


Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics
journal, August 2010

  • Dean, C. R.; Young, A. F.; Meric, I.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 5, Issue 10, p. 722-726
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2010.172

Magneto-elastic coupling in a potential ferromagnetic 2D atomic crystal
journal, June 2016


Electrical control of the ferromagnetic phase transition in cobalt at room temperature
journal, October 2011

  • Chiba, D.; Fukami, S.; Shimamura, K.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 10, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat3130

Electric-field control of local ferromagnetism using a magnetoelectric multiferroic
journal, April 2008

  • Chu, Ying-Hao; Martin, Lane W.; Holcomb, Mikel B.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 7, Issue 6, p. 478-482
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2184

Control of magnetism by electric fields
journal, March 2015

  • Matsukura, Fumihiro; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ohno, Hideo
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 10, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2015.22

Ligand-field helical luminescence in a 2D ferromagnetic insulator
journal, December 2017


Multiferroic and magnetoelectric materials
journal, August 2006

  • Eerenstein, W.; Mathur, N. D.; Scott, J. F.
  • Nature, Vol. 442, Issue 7104
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature05023

Raman spectroscopy of atomically thin two-dimensional magnetic iron phosphorus trisulfide (FePS 3 ) crystals
journal, August 2016


Probing magnetism in 2D van der Waals crystalline insulators via electron tunneling
journal, May 2018


Very large tunneling magnetoresistance in layered magnetic semiconductor CrI3
journal, June 2018


Multiferroic and Magnetoelectric Materials
journal, October 2006


Isospin Pomeranchuk effect in twisted bilayer graphene
journal, April 2021


Discovery of Intrinsic Ferromagnetism in Two-Dimensional van der Waals Crystals
conference, January 2017

  • Gong, Cheng; Li, Lin; Li, Zhenglu
  • CLEO: Applications and Technology, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics
  • DOI: 10.1364/cleo_at.2017.jth5c.2

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Ultrathin Non-van der Waals Magnetic Rhombohedral Cr 2 S 3 : Space-Confined Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis and Raman Scattering Investigation
    journal, November 2018

    • Zhou, Shasha; Wang, Renyan; Han, Junbo
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201805880

    Two‐Dimensional Magnets: Forgotten History and Recent Progress towards Spintronic Applications
    journal, May 2019

    • Cortie, David L.; Causer, Grace L.; Rule, Kirrily C.
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 30, Issue 18
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201901414

    Nonvolatile Electrical Control and Heterointerface‐Induced Half‐Metallicity of 2D Ferromagnets
    journal, April 2019

    • Zhao, Yinghe; Zhang, Jun‐Jie; Yuan, Shijun
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 24
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201901420

    Lattice Dynamics, Phonon Chirality, and Spin–Phonon Coupling in 2D Itinerant Ferromagnet Fe 3 GeTe 2
    journal, September 2019

    • Du, Luojun; Tang, Jian; Zhao, Yanchong
    • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 29, Issue 48
    • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201904734

    Ultrathin Magnetic 2D Single‐Crystal CrSe
    journal, March 2019


    Intrinsic Van Der Waals Magnetic Materials from Bulk to the 2D Limit: New Frontiers of Spintronics
    journal, May 2019


    Van der Waals Heterostructures for High‐Performance Device Applications: Challenges and Opportunities
    journal, October 2019


    Electric‐Field‐Controlled Antiferromagnetic Spintronic Devices
    journal, March 2020


    Efficient Spin‐Orbit Torque Switching of the Semiconducting Van Der Waals Ferromagnet Cr 2 Ge 2 Te 6
    journal, November 2019

    • Ostwal, Vaibhav; Shen, Tingting; Appenzeller, Joerg
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 32, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201906021

    Polymorphic Spin, Charge, and Lattice Waves in Vanadium Ditelluride
    journal, February 2020

    • Won, Dongyeun; Kiem, Do Hoon; Cho, Hwanbeom
    • Advanced Materials, Vol. 32, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1002/adma.201906578

    Chromium Trihalides Cr X 3 ( X = Cl, Br, I): Direct Deposition of Micro‐ and Nanosheets on Substrates by Chemical Vapor Transport
    journal, October 2019

    • Grönke, Martin; Buschbeck, Benjamin; Schmidt, Peer
    • Advanced Materials Interfaces, Vol. 6, Issue 24
    • DOI: 10.1002/admi.201901410

    Room‐Temperature Ferromagnetism in MoTe 2 by Post‐Growth Incorporation of Vanadium Impurities
    journal, March 2019

    • Coelho, Paula Mariel; Komsa, Hannu‐Pekka; Lasek, Kinga
    • Advanced Electronic Materials, Vol. 5, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201900044

    Peeling off Nanometer‐Thick Ferromagnetic Layers and Their van der Waals Heterostructures
    journal, July 2019

    • Yuan, Kai; Yao, Xiaohan; Wang, Hailong
    • Advanced Electronic Materials, Vol. 5, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201900345

    Spin‐Dependent Electronic Structure and Magnetic Anisotropy of 2D Ferromagnetic Janus Cr 2 I 3 X 3 ( X = Br, Cl) Monolayers
    journal, October 2019

    • Zhang, Fang; Mi, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaocha
    • Advanced Electronic Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1002/aelm.201900778

    Magnetic Entropy Scaling in Ferromagnetic Semiconductor CrGeTe 3
    journal, June 2019


    On the Ferromagnetism and Band Tailoring of CrI 3 Single Layer
    journal, October 2018

    • Gao, Yuan; Wang, Jing; Li, Zhiping
    • physica status solidi (RRL) - Rapid Research Letters, Vol. 13, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1002/pssr.201800410

    Recent Advances in Quantum Effects of 2D Materials
    journal, April 2019

    • Yi, Ya; Chen, Zhanxu; Yu, Xue‐Feng
    • Advanced Quantum Technologies, Vol. 2, Issue 5-6
    • DOI: 10.1002/qute.201800111

    Multiferroicity in atomic van der Waals heterostructures
    journal, June 2019


    Magnetic proximity and nonreciprocal current switching in a monolayer WTe2 helical edge
    journal, March 2020


    Electric-field control of magnetism in a few-layered van der Waals ferromagnetic semiconductor
    journal, July 2018


    Magnetic 2D materials and heterostructures
    journal, May 2019


    Determining the phase diagram of atomically thin layered antiferromagnet CrCl3
    journal, November 2019


    Gate-tunable room-temperature ferromagnetism in two-dimensional Fe3GeTe2
    journal, October 2018


    Van der Waals integration before and beyond two-dimensional materials
    journal, March 2019


    Thickness-dependent magnetic order in CrI3 single crystals
    journal, September 2019


    Two-dimensional spintronics for low-power electronics
    journal, July 2019


    Chromium sulfide halide monolayers: intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductors with large spin polarization and high carrier mobility
    journal, January 2018

    • Guo, Yilv; Zhang, Yehui; Yuan, Shijun
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 10, Issue 37
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8nr06368k

    Ferromagnetism in a semiconducting Janus NbSe hydride monolayer
    journal, January 2018

    • Zhou, Xiaocheng; Sun, Xu; Zhang, Zhuhua
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 6, Issue 36
    • DOI: 10.1039/c8tc03016b

    The effect of Fe vacancies and Cu adhesion on the magnetic properties of Fe 3 GeTe 2
    journal, January 2019

    • Liu, Jia; Wang, Anping; Pu, Kaisong
    • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 21, Issue 14
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9cp00151d

    Proximity effects in graphene and ferromagnetic CrBr 3 van der Waals heterostructures
    journal, January 2019

    • Behera, Sushant Kumar; Bora, Mayuri; Paul Chowdhury, Sapta Sindhu
    • Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, Vol. 21, Issue 46
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9cp05252f

    Alkali counterions tune diruthenium( iii , iii )-based ferrimagnetic chain structured antiferromagnets exhibiting step-like hysteresis loops
    journal, January 2019

    • Fan, Xiao-Meng; Li, Jing-Yu; Wang, Lin-Lin
    • Dalton Transactions, Vol. 48, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9dt01295h

    Lanthanide f 7 metalloxenes – a class of intrinsic 2D ferromagnets
    journal, January 2019

    • Tokmachev, Andrey M.; Averyanov, Dmitry V.; Taldenkov, Alexander N.
    • Materials Horizons, Vol. 6, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9mh00444k

    2D ferromagnetism in europium/graphene bilayers
    journal, January 2020

    • Sokolov, Ivan S.; Averyanov, Dmitry V.; Parfenov, Oleg E.
    • Materials Horizons, Vol. 7, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9mh01988j

    Intrinsic ferromagnetism with high temperature, strong anisotropy and controllable magnetization in the CrX (X = P, As) monolayer
    journal, January 2020

    • Ma, An-Ning; Wang, Pei-Ji; Zhang, Chang-Wen
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 12, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9nr10322h

    Interface depended electronic and magnetic properties of vertical CrI 3 /WSe 2 heterostructures
    journal, January 2019


    Reversible redox switching of magnetic order and electrical conductivity in a 2D manganese benzoquinoid framework
    journal, January 2019

    • Liu, Lujia; DeGayner, Jordan A.; Sun, Lei
    • Chemical Science, Vol. 10, Issue 17
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9sc00606k

    Multifield-tunable magneto-optical effects in electron- and hole-doped nitrogen–graphene crystals
    journal, January 2019

    • Zhou, Xiaodong; Li, Fei; Xing, Yanxia
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 7, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9tc00315k

    Enhanced stability and stacking dependent magnetic/electronic properties of 2D monolayer FeTiO 3 on a Ti 2 CO 2 substrate
    journal, January 2019

    • Jin, Cui; Shang, Jing; Tang, Xiao
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 7, Issue 48
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9tc04979g

    Long range intrinsic ferromagnetism in two dimensional materials and dissipationless future technologies
    journal, December 2018

    • Shabbir, Babar; Nadeem, Muhammad; Dai, Zhigao
    • Applied Physics Reviews, Vol. 5, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5040694

    Ferromagnetic insulator Cr 2 Ge 2 Te 6 thin films with perpendicular remanence
    journal, September 2018

    • Mogi, M.; Tsukazaki, A.; Kaneko, Y.
    • APL Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5046166

    Strain controlling transport properties of heterostructure composed of monolayer CrI 3
    journal, May 2019

    • Yang, Baishun; Zhang, Xiaolin; Yang, Hongxin
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 114, Issue 19
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5091958

    Opportunities and challenges for magnetoelectric devices
    journal, August 2019


    Two-dimensional van der Waals spinterfaces and magnetic-interfaces
    journal, March 2020

    • Dayen, Jean-Francois; Ray, Soumya J.; Karis, Olof
    • Applied Physics Reviews, Vol. 7, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5112171

    Switching of the magnetic anisotropy via strain in two dimensional multiferroic materials: CrSX (X = Cl, Br, I)
    journal, February 2020

    • Xu, Bo; Li, Shenchang; Jiang, Kun
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 116, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5140644

    Substrate-modulated ferromagnetism of two-dimensional Fe 3 GeTe 2
    journal, January 2020

    • Zhang, Luman; Song, Luyao; Dai, Hongwei
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 116, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5142077

    Evolution of interlayer and intralayer magnetism in three atomically thin chromium trihalides
    journal, May 2019

    • Kim, Hyun Ho; Yang, Bowen; Li, Siwen
    • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 116, Issue 23
    • DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1902100116

    Electrically controllable magnetic properties of Fe-doped GaSe monolayer
    journal, February 2019

    • Ke, Congming; Wu, Yaping; Guo, Guang-Yu
    • Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 52, Issue 17
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/ab03e9

    Driving the magnetic phase transition of graphene nanoribbons with fluctuation fields and doping
    journal, August 2019

    • Wang, Yuan; Chen, Wenchao; Wang, Jianjun
    • Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 52, Issue 41
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/ab2fae

    Anisotropic magnetoresistance behaviors in the layered ferromagnetic Cr 2 Ge 2 Te 6
    journal, October 2019

    • Liu, Wei; Wang, Yamei; Han, Yuyan
    • Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 53, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/ab4a38

    Strain induced electronic and magnetic properties of 2D magnet CrI 3 : a DFT approach
    journal, May 2019

    • Mukherjee, Tista; Chowdhury, Suman; Jana, Debnarayan
    • Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 31, Issue 33
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-648x/ab1fcf

    Topological phase transition induced by magnetic proximity effect in two dimensions
    journal, July 2019

    • Zeng, Yijie; Wang, Luyang; Li, Song
    • Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 31, Issue 39
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-648x/ab28d1

    Raman spectroscopy of two-dimensional magnetic van der Waals materials
    journal, August 2019


    Control of magnetism in bilayer CrI 3 by an external electric field
    journal, February 2019


    Chemical and structural stability of 2D layered materials
    journal, July 2019


    Electronic structure and magnetic properties of few-layer Cr 2 Ge 2 Te 6 : the key role of nonlocal electron–electron interaction effects
    journal, September 2019


    Recent progress of spintronics based on emerging 2D materials: CrI 3 and Xenes
    journal, December 2019


    Anomalous Hall effect mechanisms in the quasi-two-dimensional van der Waals ferromagnet F e 0.29 Ta S 2
    journal, August 2019


    Anisotropic magnetic entropy change in the hard ferromagnetic semiconductor V I 3
    journal, September 2019


    Magnetic anisotropy of the two-dimensional ferromagnetic insulator MnBi 2 Te 4
    journal, October 2019


    Strain-tunable orbital, spin-orbit, and optical properties of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides
    journal, November 2019


    Curie temperature of emerging two-dimensional magnetic structures
    journal, November 2019


    Quantum critical point and ferromagnetic semiconducting behavior in p -type FeAs 2
    journal, January 2020


    Magnetic polaron and antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic transition in doped bilayer CrI 3
    journal, January 2020


    CoB 6 monolayer: A robust two-dimensional ferromagnet
    journal, January 2019


    Stacking tunable interlayer magnetism in bilayer CrI 3
    journal, April 2019


    Current Control of Magnetism in Two-Dimensional Fe 3 GeTe 2
    journal, May 2019


    Linear Magnetoelectric Phase in Ultrathin MnPS 3 Probed by Optical Second Harmonic Generation
    journal, January 2020


    Anisotropic magnetic entropy change in Cr 2 X 2 Te 6 ( X = Si and Ge )
    journal, January 2019


    Atomic-resolution visualization and doping effects of complex structures in intercalated bilayer graphene
    journal, June 2019


    2D ferromagnetism in layered inorganic-organic hybrid perovskites
    journal, December 2019


    Critical behavior and magnetocaloric effect in VI 3
    journal, January 2020


    High mobility in a van der Waals layered antiferromagnetic metal
    journal, February 2020


    Direct observation of van der Waals stacking–dependent interlayer magnetism
    journal, November 2019


    Two-dimensional magnetic crystals and emergent heterostructure devices
    journal, February 2019


    Electron Spin Resonance Properties of CrI3 and CrCl3 Single Crystals
    journal, January 2019

    • Saiz, C. L.; McGuire, M. A.; Hennadige, S. R. J.
    • MRS Advances, Vol. 4, Issue 40
    • DOI: 10.1557/adv.2019.241

    Advanced Materials and Device Architectures for Magnetooptical Spatial Light Modulators
    journal, November 2019

    • Kharratian, Soheila; Urey, Hakan; Onbaşlı, Mehmet C.
    • Advanced Optical Materials, Vol. 8, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1002/adom.201901381

    Van der Waals magnets: Wonder building blocks for two‐dimensional spintronics?
    journal, October 2019

    • Zhang, Wen; Wong, Ping Kwan Johnny; Zhu, Rui
    • InfoMat, Vol. 1, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1002/inf2.12048

    Raman fingerprint of two terahertz spin wave branches in a two-dimensional honeycomb Ising ferromagnet
    journal, November 2018


    Pressure-controlled interlayer magnetism in atomically thin CrI3
    journal, October 2019


    Electric switching of magnetism in 2D
    journal, May 2018


    Electron quantum metamaterials in van der Waals heterostructures
    journal, November 2018


    Tuning inelastic light scattering via symmetry control in the two-dimensional magnet CrI3
    journal, January 2020


    Enhancement of interlayer exchange in an ultrathin two-dimensional magnet
    journal, September 2019


    Giant nonreciprocal second-harmonic generation from antiferromagnetic bilayer CrI3
    journal, July 2019


    Micromagnetometry of two-dimensional ferromagnets
    journal, September 2019


    Probing and controlling magnetic states in 2D layered magnetic materials
    journal, September 2019


    Recent advances in two-dimensional ferromagnetism: materials synthesis, physical properties and device applications
    journal, January 2020

    • Huang, Pu; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Shaogang
    • Nanoscale, Vol. 12, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9nr08890c

    Tuning valley polarization in two-dimensional ferromagnetic heterostructures
    journal, January 2019

    • Sun, Yu-Yun; Shang, Liyan; Ju, Weiwei
    • Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol. 7, Issue 47
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9tc04511b

    Surface-vacancy-induced metallicity and layer-dependent magnetic anisotropy energy in Cr2Ge2Te6
    journal, September 2019

    • Song, Changsheng; Liu, Xin; Wu, Xiaoping
    • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 126, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5109875

    Antiferromagnetic coupling of van der Waals ferromagnetic Fe 3 GeTe 2
    journal, March 2019


    Calculating critical temperatures for ferromagnetic order in two-dimensional materials
    journal, December 2018


    Highly tunable Raman scattering and transport in layered magnetic Cr 2 S 3 nanoplates grown by sulfurization
    journal, May 2019


    Magnetic Proximity Effect in a van der Waals Moiré Superlattice
    journal, August 2019


    Proximity exchange effects in MoSe 2 and WSe 2 heterostructures with CrI 3 : Twist angle, layer, and gate dependence
    journal, August 2019


    Field-dependent anisotropic magnetic coupling in layered ferromagnetic Fe 3 x GeTe 2
    journal, September 2019


    Strain-tunable magnetic anisotropy in monolayer CrCl 3 , CrBr 3 , and CrI 3
    journal, October 2018


    Van der Waals Spin Valves
    journal, August 2018


    Electronic structure and magnetism of transition metal dihalides: Bulk to monolayer
    journal, April 2019


    Magnon Transport in Quasi-Two-Dimensional van der Waals Antiferromagnets
    journal, February 2019


    Current-driven magnetization switching in a van der Waals ferromagnet Fe 3 GeTe 2
    journal, August 2019


    Probing magnetism in 2D materials at the nanoscale with single-spin microscopy
    journal, April 2019