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Title: Defect phase diagram for doping of Ga 2O 3

For the case of n-type doping of β-Ga 2O 3 by group 14 dopants (C, Si, Ge, Sn), a defect phase diagram is constructed from defect equilibria calculated over a range of temperatures (T), O partial pressures (pO 2), and dopant concentrations. The underlying defect levels and formation energies are determined from first-principles supercell calculations with GW bandgap corrections. Only Si is found to be a truly shallow donor, C is a deep DX-like (lattice relaxed donor) center, and Ge and Sn have defect levels close to the conduction band minimum. The thermodynamic modeling includes the effect of association of dopant-defect pairs and complexes, which causes the net doping to decline when exceeding a certain optimal dopant concentration. The optimal doping levels are surprisingly low, between about 0.01% and 1% of cation substitution, depending on the (T, pO 2) conditions. Considering further the stability constraints due to sublimation of molecular Ga 2O, specific predictions of optimized pO 2 and Si dopant concentrations are given. To conclude, the incomplete passivation of dopant-defect complexes in β-Ga 2O 3 suggests a design rule for metastable doping above the solubility limit.
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  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 2166-532X
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
APL Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 2166-532X
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; wide gap semiconductor; doping; defect equilibrium; first principles
OSTI Identifier:
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1432739