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Title: Programming temporal shapeshifting

Shapeshifting enables a wide range of engineering and biomedical applications, but until now transformations have required external triggers. This prerequisite limits viability in closed or inert systems and puts forward the challenge of developing materials with intrinsically encoded shape evolution. Herein we demonstrate programmable shape-memory materials that perform a sequence of encoded actuations under constant environment conditions without using an external trigger. We employ dual network hydrogels: in the first network, covalent crosslinks are introduced for elastic energy storage, and in the second one, temporary hydrogen-bonds regulate the energy release rate. Through strain-induced and time-dependent reorganization of the reversible hydrogen-bonds, this dual network allows for encoding both the rate and pathway of shape transformations on timescales from seconds to hours. In conclusion, this generic mechanism for programming trigger-free shapeshifting opens new ways to design autonomous actuators, drug-release systems and active implants.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)
  2. Univ. of Akron, Akron, OH (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0001011
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; Gels and hydrogels; Polymers; Scaling laws; Supramolecular polymers
OSTI Identifier:
1435804

Hu, Xiaobo, Zhou, Jing, Vatankhah-Varnosfaderani, Mohammad, Daniel, William F. M., Li, Qiaoxi, Zhushma, Aleksandr P., Dobrynin, Andrey V., and Sheiko, Sergei S.. Programming temporal shapeshifting. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1038/ncomms12919.
Hu, Xiaobo, Zhou, Jing, Vatankhah-Varnosfaderani, Mohammad, Daniel, William F. M., Li, Qiaoxi, Zhushma, Aleksandr P., Dobrynin, Andrey V., & Sheiko, Sergei S.. Programming temporal shapeshifting. United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms12919.
Hu, Xiaobo, Zhou, Jing, Vatankhah-Varnosfaderani, Mohammad, Daniel, William F. M., Li, Qiaoxi, Zhushma, Aleksandr P., Dobrynin, Andrey V., and Sheiko, Sergei S.. 2016. "Programming temporal shapeshifting". United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms12919. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1435804.
@article{osti_1435804,
title = {Programming temporal shapeshifting},
author = {Hu, Xiaobo and Zhou, Jing and Vatankhah-Varnosfaderani, Mohammad and Daniel, William F. M. and Li, Qiaoxi and Zhushma, Aleksandr P. and Dobrynin, Andrey V. and Sheiko, Sergei S.},
abstractNote = {Shapeshifting enables a wide range of engineering and biomedical applications, but until now transformations have required external triggers. This prerequisite limits viability in closed or inert systems and puts forward the challenge of developing materials with intrinsically encoded shape evolution. Herein we demonstrate programmable shape-memory materials that perform a sequence of encoded actuations under constant environment conditions without using an external trigger. We employ dual network hydrogels: in the first network, covalent crosslinks are introduced for elastic energy storage, and in the second one, temporary hydrogen-bonds regulate the energy release rate. Through strain-induced and time-dependent reorganization of the reversible hydrogen-bonds, this dual network allows for encoding both the rate and pathway of shape transformations on timescales from seconds to hours. In conclusion, this generic mechanism for programming trigger-free shapeshifting opens new ways to design autonomous actuators, drug-release systems and active implants.},
doi = {10.1038/ncomms12919},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = ,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {9}
}