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Title: Groundwater drainage from fissures as a source for lahars

Abstract

One mechanism for generating lahars at volcanoes experiencing unrest is the disruption of internal aquifers. These disruptions can trigger releases of large quantities of groundwater. An example of such aquifer disruption occurred at Nevado del Huila Volcano, Colombia, during February and April 2007 when large fractures formed across the summit area of the volcano and lahars were emitted from them. Previous work interpreted that lahar volumes could not be accounted for by melted glacial snow or precipitation, and by elimination suggested that the primary water source was groundwater. Conceptual models have been developed for perched, confined aquifers that have been heated and pressurized by magma intrusions, followed by sudden pressure release and water emission during fracture formation. In this paper, we consider an alternative end member wherein water release from large fissures at volcanoes is driven by simple gravity drainage. We apply numerical modeling to quantify water discharge from the porous medium surrounding a fissure with a low-elevation free exit. If a long fracture with high vertical extent (on the order of hundreds of meters) intersects a highly connected saturated porous medium, large volumes (on order 10 3 m 3/m of crack length) of water may be released within tensmore » of minutes. The drainage rates from the model may be adequate to account for the Nevado del Huila events if the medium surrounding the crack contains a large volume of water and has high horizontal permeability. Finally, this simple but poorly understood mechanism can present a hazard on its own or compound other processes releasing water from volcanoes.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [2];  [4];  [4];  [4]
  1. Univ. at Buffalo, Amherst, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  2. Univ. at Buffalo, Amherst, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  4. Colombian Geological Service (SGC), Popayán (Colombia)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1435523
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-28669
Journal ID: ISSN 0258-8900
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Volcanology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 80; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0258-8900
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Earth Sciences; Lahar; Groundwater; Modeling; Nevado del Huila

Citation Formats

Johnson, P. J., Valentine, G. A., Stauffer, P. H., Lowry, C. S., Sonder, I., Pulgarin, B. A., Santacoloma, C. C., and Agudelo, A. Groundwater drainage from fissures as a source for lahars. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s00445-018-1214-4.
Johnson, P. J., Valentine, G. A., Stauffer, P. H., Lowry, C. S., Sonder, I., Pulgarin, B. A., Santacoloma, C. C., & Agudelo, A. Groundwater drainage from fissures as a source for lahars. United States. doi:10.1007/s00445-018-1214-4.
Johnson, P. J., Valentine, G. A., Stauffer, P. H., Lowry, C. S., Sonder, I., Pulgarin, B. A., Santacoloma, C. C., and Agudelo, A. Thu . "Groundwater drainage from fissures as a source for lahars". United States. doi:10.1007/s00445-018-1214-4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1435523.
@article{osti_1435523,
title = {Groundwater drainage from fissures as a source for lahars},
author = {Johnson, P. J. and Valentine, G. A. and Stauffer, P. H. and Lowry, C. S. and Sonder, I. and Pulgarin, B. A. and Santacoloma, C. C. and Agudelo, A.},
abstractNote = {One mechanism for generating lahars at volcanoes experiencing unrest is the disruption of internal aquifers. These disruptions can trigger releases of large quantities of groundwater. An example of such aquifer disruption occurred at Nevado del Huila Volcano, Colombia, during February and April 2007 when large fractures formed across the summit area of the volcano and lahars were emitted from them. Previous work interpreted that lahar volumes could not be accounted for by melted glacial snow or precipitation, and by elimination suggested that the primary water source was groundwater. Conceptual models have been developed for perched, confined aquifers that have been heated and pressurized by magma intrusions, followed by sudden pressure release and water emission during fracture formation. In this paper, we consider an alternative end member wherein water release from large fissures at volcanoes is driven by simple gravity drainage. We apply numerical modeling to quantify water discharge from the porous medium surrounding a fissure with a low-elevation free exit. If a long fracture with high vertical extent (on the order of hundreds of meters) intersects a highly connected saturated porous medium, large volumes (on order 103 m3/m of crack length) of water may be released within tens of minutes. The drainage rates from the model may be adequate to account for the Nevado del Huila events if the medium surrounding the crack contains a large volume of water and has high horizontal permeability. Finally, this simple but poorly understood mechanism can present a hazard on its own or compound other processes releasing water from volcanoes.},
doi = {10.1007/s00445-018-1214-4},
journal = {Journal of Volcanology},
number = 4,
volume = 80,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}

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