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Title: How Many Kilonovae Can Be Found in Past, Present, and Future Survey Data Sets?

Abstract

The discovery of a kilonova (KN) associated with the Advanced LIGO (aLIGO)/Virgo event GW170817 opens up new avenues of multi-messenger astrophysics. Here, using realistic simulations, we provide estimates of the number of KNe that could be found in data from past, present and future surveys without a gravitational-wave trigger. For the simulation, we construct a spectral time-series model based on the DES-GW multi-band light-curve from the single known KN event, and we use an average of BNS rates from past studies of $${10}^{3}\,{\mathrm{Gpc}}^{-3}\,{\mathrm{yr}}^{-1}$$, consistent with the $1$ event found so far. Examining past and current datasets from transient surveys, the number of KNe we expect to find for ASAS-SN, SDSS, PS1, SNLS, DES, and SMT is between 0 and $0.3$. We predict the number of detections per future survey to be: 8.3 from ATLAS, 10.6 from ZTF, 5.5/69 from LSST (the Deep Drilling / Wide Fast Deep), and 16.0 from WFIRST. The maximum redshift of KNe discovered for each survey is z = 0.8 for WFIRST, z = 0.25 for LSST and z = 0.04 for ZTF and ATLAS. For the LSST survey, we also provide contamination estimates from Type Ia and Core-collapse supernovae: after light-curve and template-matching requirements, we estimate a background of just 2 events. Finally, more broadly, we stress that future transient surveys should consider how to optimize their search strategies to improve their detection efficiency, and to consider similar analyses for GW follow-up programs.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21)
Contributing Org.:
DES Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1434944
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1417636; OSTI ID: 1422475; OSTI ID: 1432243
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1710.05845; FERMILAB-PUB-17-452-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213; 1630983; TRN: US1802826
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; AC02-76SF00515; AC02-05CH11231; 14-WPS14-0048; HST-HF2-51383.001; NAS 5-26555; AST-1411763; AST- 1714498; NNX15AE50G; NNX16AC22G; AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 852; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; Stars: Neutron; stars; neutron

Citation Formats

Scolnic, D., Kessler, R., Brout, D., Cowperthwaite, P. S., Soares-Santos, M., Annis, J., Herner, K., Chen, H. -Y., Sako, M., Doctor, Z., Butler, R. E., Palmese, A., Diehl, H. T., Frieman, J., Holz, D. E., Berger, E., Chornock, R., Villar, V. A., Nicholl, M., Biswas, R., Hounsell, R., Foley, R. J., Metzger, J., Rest, A., García-Bellido, J., Möller, A., Nugent, P., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Allam, S., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Cunha, C. E., D’Andrea, C. B., Costa, L. N. da, Davis, C., Doel, P., Drlica-Wagner, A., Eifler, T. F., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Hartley, W. G., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Johnson, M. W. G., Johnson, M. D., Krause, E., Kuehn, K., Kuhlmann, S., Lahav, O., Li, T. S., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Marshall, J. L., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Neilsen, E., Plazas, A. A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Smith, R. C., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, R. C., Tucker, D. L., and Walker, A. R. How Many Kilonovae Can Be Found in Past, Present, and Future Survey Data Sets?. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa9d82.
Scolnic, D., Kessler, R., Brout, D., Cowperthwaite, P. S., Soares-Santos, M., Annis, J., Herner, K., Chen, H. -Y., Sako, M., Doctor, Z., Butler, R. E., Palmese, A., Diehl, H. T., Frieman, J., Holz, D. E., Berger, E., Chornock, R., Villar, V. A., Nicholl, M., Biswas, R., Hounsell, R., Foley, R. J., Metzger, J., Rest, A., García-Bellido, J., Möller, A., Nugent, P., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Allam, S., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Cunha, C. E., D’Andrea, C. B., Costa, L. N. da, Davis, C., Doel, P., Drlica-Wagner, A., Eifler, T. F., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Hartley, W. G., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Johnson, M. W. G., Johnson, M. D., Krause, E., Kuehn, K., Kuhlmann, S., Lahav, O., Li, T. S., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Marshall, J. L., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Neilsen, E., Plazas, A. A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Smith, R. C., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, R. C., Tucker, D. L., & Walker, A. R. How Many Kilonovae Can Be Found in Past, Present, and Future Survey Data Sets?. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa9d82.
Scolnic, D., Kessler, R., Brout, D., Cowperthwaite, P. S., Soares-Santos, M., Annis, J., Herner, K., Chen, H. -Y., Sako, M., Doctor, Z., Butler, R. E., Palmese, A., Diehl, H. T., Frieman, J., Holz, D. E., Berger, E., Chornock, R., Villar, V. A., Nicholl, M., Biswas, R., Hounsell, R., Foley, R. J., Metzger, J., Rest, A., García-Bellido, J., Möller, A., Nugent, P., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Allam, S., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Cunha, C. E., D’Andrea, C. B., Costa, L. N. da, Davis, C., Doel, P., Drlica-Wagner, A., Eifler, T. F., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Hartley, W. G., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Johnson, M. W. G., Johnson, M. D., Krause, E., Kuehn, K., Kuhlmann, S., Lahav, O., Li, T. S., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Marshall, J. L., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Neilsen, E., Plazas, A. A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Smith, R. C., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, R. C., Tucker, D. L., and Walker, A. R. Fri . "How Many Kilonovae Can Be Found in Past, Present, and Future Survey Data Sets?". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa9d82. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1434944.
@article{osti_1434944,
title = {How Many Kilonovae Can Be Found in Past, Present, and Future Survey Data Sets?},
author = {Scolnic, D. and Kessler, R. and Brout, D. and Cowperthwaite, P. S. and Soares-Santos, M. and Annis, J. and Herner, K. and Chen, H. -Y. and Sako, M. and Doctor, Z. and Butler, R. E. and Palmese, A. and Diehl, H. T. and Frieman, J. and Holz, D. E. and Berger, E. and Chornock, R. and Villar, V. A. and Nicholl, M. and Biswas, R. and Hounsell, R. and Foley, R. J. and Metzger, J. and Rest, A. and García-Bellido, J. and Möller, A. and Nugent, P. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Abdalla, F. B. and Allam, S. and Bechtol, K. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bertin, E. and Brooks, D. and Buckley-Geer, E. and Rosell, A. Carnero and Kind, M. Carrasco and Carretero, J. and Castander, F. J. and Cunha, C. E. and D’Andrea, C. B. and Costa, L. N. da and Davis, C. and Doel, P. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Eifler, T. F. and Flaugher, B. and Fosalba, P. and Gaztanaga, E. and Gerdes, D. W. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gschwend, J. and Gutierrez, G. and Hartley, W. G. and Honscheid, K. and James, D. J. and Johnson, M. W. G. and Johnson, M. D. and Krause, E. and Kuehn, K. and Kuhlmann, S. and Lahav, O. and Li, T. S. and Lima, M. and Maia, M. A. G. and March, M. and Marshall, J. L. and Menanteau, F. and Miquel, R. and Neilsen, E. and Plazas, A. A. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Schubnell, M. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Smith, M. and Smith, R. C. and Sobreira, F. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G. and Thomas, R. C. and Tucker, D. L. and Walker, A. R.},
abstractNote = {The discovery of a kilonova (KN) associated with the Advanced LIGO (aLIGO)/Virgo event GW170817 opens up new avenues of multi-messenger astrophysics. Here, using realistic simulations, we provide estimates of the number of KNe that could be found in data from past, present and future surveys without a gravitational-wave trigger. For the simulation, we construct a spectral time-series model based on the DES-GW multi-band light-curve from the single known KN event, and we use an average of BNS rates from past studies of ${10}^{3}\,{\mathrm{Gpc}}^{-3}\,{\mathrm{yr}}^{-1}$, consistent with the $1$ event found so far. Examining past and current datasets from transient surveys, the number of KNe we expect to find for ASAS-SN, SDSS, PS1, SNLS, DES, and SMT is between 0 and $0.3$. We predict the number of detections per future survey to be: 8.3 from ATLAS, 10.6 from ZTF, 5.5/69 from LSST (the Deep Drilling / Wide Fast Deep), and 16.0 from WFIRST. The maximum redshift of KNe discovered for each survey is z = 0.8 for WFIRST, z = 0.25 for LSST and z = 0.04 for ZTF and ATLAS. For the LSST survey, we also provide contamination estimates from Type Ia and Core-collapse supernovae: after light-curve and template-matching requirements, we estimate a background of just 2 events. Finally, more broadly, we stress that future transient surveys should consider how to optimize their search strategies to improve their detection efficiency, and to consider similar analyses for GW follow-up programs.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/aa9d82},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 852,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {12}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Display of key characteristics for transient surveys used in our analysis. Left panel: the depth per night per filter. Middle panel: the mean gap between repeat observations in a single filter. Right panel: the survey area covered each observing year. Numbers for each panel are given explicitly inmore » Table 1.« less

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