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Title: Improved Constraints on H0 from a Combined Analysis of Gravitational-wave and Electromagnetic Emission from GW170817

Abstract

The luminosity distance measurement of GW170817 derived from gravitational-wave analysis in Abbott et al. (2017a, hereafter A17:H0) is highly correlated with the measured inclination of the NS–NS system. To improve the precision of the distance measurement, we attempt to constrain the inclination by modeling the broadband X-ray-to-radio emission from GW170817, which is dominated by the interaction of the jet with the environment. We update our previous analysis and we consider the radio and X-ray data obtained at t < 40 days since merger. We find that the afterglow emission from GW170817 is consistent with an off-axis relativistic jet with energy Ek~1048 -3 × 1050 erg propagating into an environment with density n ~ 10-2–10-4 cm-3, with preference for wider jets (opening angle θ j = 15°). For these jets, our modeling indicates an off-axis angle θ obs ~25°–50°. We combine our constraints on θ obs with the joint distance–inclination constraint from LIGO. Using the same ~170 km s-1 peculiar velocity uncertainty assumed in A17:H0 but with an inclination constraint from the afterglow data, we get a value of H0 =74.0 ± $$\frac{11.5}{7.5}$$ km s-1 Mpc-1, which is higher than the value of H0 70.0 ± $$\frac{12.0}{8.0}$$ km s-1 Mpc-1 found in A17:H0. Further, using a more realistic peculiar velocity uncertainty of 250 km s-1 derived from previous work, we find km s-1 Mpc-1 for H0 from this system. This is in modestly better agreement with the local distance ladder than the Planck cosmic microwave background, though such a significant discrimination will require ~50 such events. Finally, measurements at t > 100 days of the X-ray and radio emission will lead to tighter constraints.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [5];  [5];  [7];  [2];  [5];  [8]; ORCiD logo [9]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [10]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [5]
  1. Univ. of Ferrara (Italy). Dept. of Physics and Earth Science
  2. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  3. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  4. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst., Dept. of Physics, Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics
  5. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  6. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  7. Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States). Astrophysical Inst., Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  8. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics
  9. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics
  10. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)
OSTI Identifier:
1434943
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1645477
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-17-469-A; arXiv:1710.06426
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213; 1631149; TRN: US1802825
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359; SC0007859
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 851; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gamma-ray burst: general; gravitational waves

Citation Formats

Guidorzi, C., Margutti, R., Brout, D., Scolnic, D., Fong, W., Alexander, K. D., Cowperthwaite, P. S., Annis, J., Berger, E., Blanchard, P. K., Chornock, R., Coppejans, D. L., Eftekhari, T., Frieman, J. A., Huterer, D., Nicholl, M., Soares-Santos, M., Terreran, G., Villar, V. A., and Williams, P. K. G. Improved Constraints on H0 from a Combined Analysis of Gravitational-wave and Electromagnetic Emission from GW170817. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aaa009.
Guidorzi, C., Margutti, R., Brout, D., Scolnic, D., Fong, W., Alexander, K. D., Cowperthwaite, P. S., Annis, J., Berger, E., Blanchard, P. K., Chornock, R., Coppejans, D. L., Eftekhari, T., Frieman, J. A., Huterer, D., Nicholl, M., Soares-Santos, M., Terreran, G., Villar, V. A., & Williams, P. K. G. Improved Constraints on H0 from a Combined Analysis of Gravitational-wave and Electromagnetic Emission from GW170817. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aaa009.
Guidorzi, C., Margutti, R., Brout, D., Scolnic, D., Fong, W., Alexander, K. D., Cowperthwaite, P. S., Annis, J., Berger, E., Blanchard, P. K., Chornock, R., Coppejans, D. L., Eftekhari, T., Frieman, J. A., Huterer, D., Nicholl, M., Soares-Santos, M., Terreran, G., Villar, V. A., and Williams, P. K. G. Mon . "Improved Constraints on H0 from a Combined Analysis of Gravitational-wave and Electromagnetic Emission from GW170817". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aaa009. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1434943.
@article{osti_1434943,
title = {Improved Constraints on H0 from a Combined Analysis of Gravitational-wave and Electromagnetic Emission from GW170817},
author = {Guidorzi, C. and Margutti, R. and Brout, D. and Scolnic, D. and Fong, W. and Alexander, K. D. and Cowperthwaite, P. S. and Annis, J. and Berger, E. and Blanchard, P. K. and Chornock, R. and Coppejans, D. L. and Eftekhari, T. and Frieman, J. A. and Huterer, D. and Nicholl, M. and Soares-Santos, M. and Terreran, G. and Villar, V. A. and Williams, P. K. G.},
abstractNote = {The luminosity distance measurement of GW170817 derived from gravitational-wave analysis in Abbott et al. (2017a, hereafter A17:H0) is highly correlated with the measured inclination of the NS–NS system. To improve the precision of the distance measurement, we attempt to constrain the inclination by modeling the broadband X-ray-to-radio emission from GW170817, which is dominated by the interaction of the jet with the environment. We update our previous analysis and we consider the radio and X-ray data obtained at t < 40 days since merger. We find that the afterglow emission from GW170817 is consistent with an off-axis relativistic jet with energy Ek~1048 -3 × 1050 erg propagating into an environment with density n ~ 10-2–10-4 cm-3, with preference for wider jets (opening angle θ j = 15°). For these jets, our modeling indicates an off-axis angle θ obs ~25°–50°. We combine our constraints on θ obs with the joint distance–inclination constraint from LIGO. Using the same ~170 km s-1 peculiar velocity uncertainty assumed in A17:H0 but with an inclination constraint from the afterglow data, we get a value of H0 =74.0 ± $\frac{11.5}{7.5}$ km s-1 Mpc-1, which is higher than the value of H0 70.0 ± $\frac{12.0}{8.0}$ km s-1 Mpc-1 found in A17:H0. Further, using a more realistic peculiar velocity uncertainty of 250 km s-1 derived from previous work, we find km s-1 Mpc-1 for H0 from this system. This is in modestly better agreement with the local distance ladder than the Planck cosmic microwave background, though such a significant discrimination will require ~50 such events. Finally, measurements at t > 100 days of the X-ray and radio emission will lead to tighter constraints.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/aaa009},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 851,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {12}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Off-axis jet models with θj=5° (left) and θj=15° (right) that best fit the current set of X-ray (1 keV; blue) and radio observations (black, orange, red, and gray for flux densities at ∼10 GHz, ∼6 GHz, ∼3 GHz, and ∼1.4 GHz , respectively). The values of the othermore » model parameters are listed in the plot titles (both have p = 2.1). Triangles identify upper limits. These plots show the current data set and demonstrate that the emission from an off-axis relativistic uniform jet can reasonably account for the X-ray and radio observations of GW170817. Wider jets are currently favored by observations because of the milder rise and broader peak of the associated emission, as we found in A17 and M17, and as independently found by Haggard et al. (2017), Hallinan et al. (2017), and Troja et al. (2017). Radio data at 6 GHz are displayed here for comparison, but they have not been used in our calculations (see the text for details).« less

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    A Hubble constant measurement from superluminal motion of the jet in GW170817
    journal, July 2019


    A Hubble constant measurement from superluminal motion of the jet in GW170817
    journal, July 2019


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