skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Spatially-resolved study of the Meissner effect in superconductors using NV-centers-in-diamond optical magnetometry

Abstract

Non-invasive magnetic field sensing using optically-detected magnetic resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond was used to study spatial distribution of the magnetic induction upon penetration and expulsion of weak magnetic fields in several representative superconductors. Vector magnetic fields were measured on the surface of conventional, elemental Pb and Nb, and compound LuNi2B2C and unconventional iron-based superconductors Ba1-xKxFe2As2 (x = 0.34 optimal hole doping), Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 (x = 0.07 optimal electron doping), and stoichiometric CaKFe4As4, using variable-temperature confocal system with diffraction-limited spatial resolution. Magnetic induction profiles across the crystal edges were measured in zero-field-cooled and field-cooled conditions. While all superconductors show nearly perfect screening of magnetic fields applied after cooling to temperatures well below the superconducting transition, Tc, a range of very different behaviors was observed for Meissner expulsion upon cooling in static magnetic field from above Tc. Substantial conventional Meissner expulsion is found in LuNi2B2C, paramagnetic Meissner effect is found in Nb, and virtually no expulsion is observed in iron-based superconductors. In all cases, good correlation with macroscopic measurements of total magnetic moment is found.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics & Astronomy
  2. Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division; Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
OSTI Identifier:
1433656
Report Number(s):
IS-J-9590
Journal ID: ISSN 1367-2630; TRN: US1802365
Grant/Contract Number:  
GBMF4411; AC02-07CH11358
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
New Journal of Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 20; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1367-2630
Publisher:
IOP Publishing
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY

Citation Formats

Nusran, N. M., Joshi, K. R., Cho, K., Tanatar, M. A., Meier, W. R., Bud?ko, S. L., Canfield, P. C., Liu, Y., Lograsso, T. A., and Prozorov, R. Spatially-resolved study of the Meissner effect in superconductors using NV-centers-in-diamond optical magnetometry. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. https://doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/aab47c.
Nusran, N. M., Joshi, K. R., Cho, K., Tanatar, M. A., Meier, W. R., Bud?ko, S. L., Canfield, P. C., Liu, Y., Lograsso, T. A., & Prozorov, R. Spatially-resolved study of the Meissner effect in superconductors using NV-centers-in-diamond optical magnetometry. United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/aab47c
Nusran, N. M., Joshi, K. R., Cho, K., Tanatar, M. A., Meier, W. R., Bud?ko, S. L., Canfield, P. C., Liu, Y., Lograsso, T. A., and Prozorov, R. Thu . "Spatially-resolved study of the Meissner effect in superconductors using NV-centers-in-diamond optical magnetometry". United States. https://doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/aab47c. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1433656.
@article{osti_1433656,
title = {Spatially-resolved study of the Meissner effect in superconductors using NV-centers-in-diamond optical magnetometry},
author = {Nusran, N. M. and Joshi, K. R. and Cho, K. and Tanatar, M. A. and Meier, W. R. and Bud?ko, S. L. and Canfield, P. C. and Liu, Y. and Lograsso, T. A. and Prozorov, R.},
abstractNote = {Non-invasive magnetic field sensing using optically-detected magnetic resonance of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond was used to study spatial distribution of the magnetic induction upon penetration and expulsion of weak magnetic fields in several representative superconductors. Vector magnetic fields were measured on the surface of conventional, elemental Pb and Nb, and compound LuNi2B2C and unconventional iron-based superconductors Ba1-xKxFe2As2 (x = 0.34 optimal hole doping), Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 (x = 0.07 optimal electron doping), and stoichiometric CaKFe4As4, using variable-temperature confocal system with diffraction-limited spatial resolution. Magnetic induction profiles across the crystal edges were measured in zero-field-cooled and field-cooled conditions. While all superconductors show nearly perfect screening of magnetic fields applied after cooling to temperatures well below the superconducting transition, Tc, a range of very different behaviors was observed for Meissner expulsion upon cooling in static magnetic field from above Tc. Substantial conventional Meissner expulsion is found in LuNi2B2C, paramagnetic Meissner effect is found in Nb, and virtually no expulsion is observed in iron-based superconductors. In all cases, good correlation with macroscopic measurements of total magnetic moment is found.},
doi = {10.1088/1367-2630/aab47c},
journal = {New Journal of Physics},
number = 4,
volume = 20,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 6 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Observation of Paramagnetic Meissner Effect in Niobium Disks
journal, July 1995


Temperature Dependence of the Nitrogen-Vacancy Magnetic Resonance in Diamond
journal, February 2010


Superconductivity in the quaternary intermetallic compounds LnNi2B2C
journal, January 1994

  • Cava, R. J.; Takagi, H.; Zandbergen, H. W.
  • Nature, Vol. 367, Issue 6460
  • DOI: 10.1038/367252a0

Paramagnetic Meissner effect in small superconductors
journal, November 1998

  • Geim, A. K.; Dubonos, S. V.; Lok, J. G. S.
  • Nature, Vol. 396, Issue 6707
  • DOI: 10.1038/24110

Magnetooptic observation of the Meissner effect in YBa2Cu2O7−x single crystals
journal, February 1993


Paramagnetic Meissner effect in Bi high-temperature superconductors
journal, March 1992


Fundamental studies of superconductors using scanning magnetic imaging
journal, November 2010


Nanoscale magnetic imaging of a single electron spin under ambient conditions
journal, February 2013

  • Grinolds, M. S.; Hong, S.; Maletinsky, P.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 9, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2543

Paramagnetic Meissner effect in high-temperature superconductors
journal, August 1993


Scanned probe imaging of nanoscale magnetism at cryogenic temperatures with a single-spin quantum sensor
journal, May 2016

  • Pelliccione, Matthew; Jenkins, Alec; Ovartchaiyapong, Preeti
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 11, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2016.68

The paramagnetic Meissner effect in superconductors at 40 G and flux trapping
journal, September 1997

  • Okram, Gunadhor S.; Adroja, D. T.; Padalia, B. D.
  • Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Vol. 9, Issue 38
  • DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/9/38/001

Paramagnetic moment in field-cooled superconducting plates: Paramagnetic Meissner effect
journal, November 1995


Quantitative nanoscale vortex imaging using a cryogenic quantum magnetometer
journal, May 2016


Chip-Scale Nanofabrication of Single Spins and Spin Arrays in Diamond
journal, August 2010

  • Toyli, David M.; Weis, Christoph D.; Fuchs, Gregory D.
  • Nano Letters, Vol. 10, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1021/nl102066q

Topological hysteresis in the intermediate state of type-I superconductors
journal, December 2005

  • Prozorov, Ruslan; Giannetta, Russell W.; Polyanskii, Anatolii A.
  • Physical Review B, Vol. 72, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.72.212508

Diamond magnetometry of superconducting thin films
journal, February 2014


Energy gap evolution across the superconductivity dome in single crystals of (Ba 1− x K x )Fe 2 As 2
journal, September 2016

  • Cho, Kyuil; Kończykowski, Marcin; Teknowijoyo, Serafim
  • Science Advances, Vol. 2, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600807

Local magnetic probes of superconductors
journal, July 1999


Meissner-London state in superconductors of rectangular cross section in a perpendicular magnetic field
journal, July 2000


Diamond magnetometry of Meissner currents in a superconducting film
journal, July 2016

  • Alfasi, Nir; Masis, Sergei; Shtempluck, Oleg
  • AIP Advances, Vol. 6, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4959225

Anisotropic interactions of a single spin and dark-spin spectroscopy in diamond
journal, October 2005

  • Epstein, R. J.; Mendoza, F. M.; Kato, Y. K.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 1, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys141

Nanoscale magnetic field mapping with a single spin scanning probe magnetometer
journal, April 2012

  • Rondin, L.; Tetienne, J. -P.; Spinicelli, P.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 100, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3703128

Collapse of the critical state in superconducting niobium
journal, December 2006


Anisotropic thermodynamic and transport properties of single-crystalline CaKFe 4 As 4
journal, August 2016


London penetration depth in iron-based superconductors
journal, September 2011


The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond
journal, July 2013


Unconventional London Penetration Depth in Single-Crystal Ba ( Fe 0.93 Co 0.07 ) 2 As 2 Superconductors
journal, March 2009


Electrical resistivity and thermopower of single-crystal R Ni 2 B 2 C ( R = Dy , Ho, Er, Tm) magnetic superconductors
journal, July 1997

  • Bhatnagar, A. K.; Rathnayaka, K. D. D.; Naugle, D. G.
  • Physical Review B, Vol. 56, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1103/physrevb.56.437

Suprafroth in type-I superconductors
journal, March 2008

  • Prozorov, Ruslan; Fidler, Andrew F.; Hoberg, Jacob R.
  • Nature Physics, Vol. 4, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/nphys888

Magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond
journal, May 2014


Geometrical barriers in type II superconductors
journal, December 1994


Anomalous Meissner effect in pnictide superconductors
journal, November 2010


Influence of a static magnetic field on the photoluminescence of an ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy color centers in a diamond single-crystal
journal, September 2009

  • Lai, Ngoc Diep; Zheng, Dingwei; Jelezko, Fedor
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3238467

Geometric barrier and current string in type-II superconductors obtained from continuum electrodynamics
journal, February 1999


Paramagnetic Meissner effect in Nb
journal, January 1996


Paramagnetic Meissner effect and related dynamical phenomena
journal, March 2003


Paramagnetic Meissner effect in high-temperature superconductors: Experiments and interpretation
journal, May 1996


Equilibrium Topology of the Intermediate State in Type-I Superconductors of Different Shapes
journal, June 2007


Creating diamond color centers for quantum optical applications
journal, November 2007


Disorder, critical currents, and vortex pinning energies in isovalently substituted BaFe 2 (As 1 x P x ) 2
journal, March 2013


Subnanometre resolution in three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging of individual dark spins
journal, March 2014

  • Grinolds, M. S.; Warner, M.; De Greve, K.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 9, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2014.30

Meissner-London state in superconductors of rectangular cross section in a perpendicular magnetic field
journal, July 2000


Topological hysteresis in the intermediate state of type-I superconductors
journal, December 2005

  • Prozorov, Ruslan; Giannetta, Russell W.; Polyanskii, Anatolii A.
  • Physical Review B, Vol. 72, Issue 21
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.72.212508

Anomalous Meissner effect in pnictide superconductors
journal, November 2010


Paramagnetic Meissner effect in Bi high-temperature superconductors
journal, March 1992


Paramagnetic Meissner effect in high-temperature superconductors
journal, August 1993


Observation of Paramagnetic Meissner Effect in Niobium Disks
journal, July 1995


Paramagnetic Meissner effect in Nb
journal, January 1996


Equilibrium Topology of the Intermediate State in Type-I Superconductors of Different Shapes
journal, June 2007


Magnetooptic observation of the Meissner effect in YBa2Cu2O7−x single crystals
journal, February 1993


Paramagnetic moment in field-cooled superconducting plates: Paramagnetic Meissner effect
journal, November 1995


Temperature Dependence of the Nitrogen-Vacancy Magnetic Resonance in Diamond
journal, February 2010


Diamond magnetometry of superconducting thin films
journal, February 2014


Electrical resistivity and thermopower of single-crystal R Ni 2 B 2 C ( R = Dy , Ho, Er, Tm) magnetic superconductors
journal, July 1997

  • Bhatnagar, A. K.; Rathnayaka, K. D. D.; Naugle, D. G.
  • Physical Review B, Vol. 56, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.56.437

Collapse of the critical state in superconducting niobium
journal, December 2006


Paramagnetic Meissner effect in high-temperature superconductors: Experiments and interpretation
journal, May 1996


Paramagnetic Meissner effect and related dynamical phenomena
journal, March 2003


Unconventional London Penetration Depth in Single-Crystal Ba ( Fe 0.93 Co 0.07 ) 2 As 2 Superconductors
journal, March 2009


Anisotropic thermodynamic and transport properties of single-crystalline CaKFe 4 As 4
journal, August 2016


Geometric barrier and current string in type-II superconductors obtained from continuum electrodynamics
journal, February 1999


Disorder, critical currents, and vortex pinning energies in isovalently substituted BaFe 2 (As 1 x P x ) 2
journal, March 2013


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Neutral oxygen-vacancy defect in cubic boron nitride: A plausible qubit candidate
    journal, March 2019

    • Bian, Guodong; Yuan, Heng; Zhang, Ning
    • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 114, Issue 10
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5083076

    Measuring the Lower Critical Field of Superconductors Using Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond Optical Magnetometry
    journal, January 2019


    Measuring magnetic field texture in correlated electron systems under extreme conditions
    journal, December 2019


    Tunnel diode resonator for precision magnetic susceptibility measurements in a mK temperature range and large DC magnetic fields
    journal, September 2018

    • Kim, Hyunsoo; Tanatar, M. A.; Prozorov, R.
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 89, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.5048008

    Color Centers in Diamond as Novel Probes of Superconductivity
    journal, September 2018

    • Acosta, Victor M.; Bouchard, Louis S.; Budker, Dmitry
    • Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism, Vol. 32, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1007/s10948-018-4877-3